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Full text of "Vennor's winter almanac and weather record, 1877-78"

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DAWSON BROS., MONTREAL. TRADE AGENTS. 



MONTREAL. 



I Liverpool and London and Bloke Insurance Company. 

t> INVESTED FUNDS $27 470 000 

4 INVESTMENTS IN CANADA .'...'.WW". '. 'WWW 'W i)OC I'ooO 

| Head Office Canada Branch, Montreal 

4 

? Board of Directors. 

^ ££?* 5KHEE STABNES, Chairman. 

* ™ 0S / 9 RAMP » EsQ -' Deputy Chairman. 

fc SIR A. T. GALT, K.C.M.G. 

<? THEODORE HART, Esq. 

$ GEORGE 8TEj?HEtf f Esq. 



Mercantile Risks Accepted at Lowest Current Rates. 



^ Dwelling Houses and Earm Property insured on special terms. 

{ G. F.C.SMITH 

I Chief Agent for the Dominion, Montreal. 



j W. k F. P. CURRIE k CO., 

\ lOO GREY NUN STREET, Montreal, 

C IMPORTERS of 

j Pig Iron, Bar Iron, Boiler Plates, 

Galvanized Iron, Canada Plates, Tin Plates. 
; Boiler Tubes, Gas Tubes, 

i Ingot Tin, Rivets, Veined Marble 

6 Ingot Copper. Iron Wire, Roman Cement, 

Sheet Copper, Steel Wire, Portland Cement, 

t A ™ mon Z>. G\&ss, Canadi Cement, 

Sheet Zinc, Paints, Paring Tiles, 

/ In S, ot r Ln % Fire Cla ^» Garden Vases, 

li S l^ead, Fl ue Covers, Chlmnev Tops, 

% Dry Red Lead, Fire Bricks, Fountains, 

r Dry White Lead, DRAIN PIPES 

t Patent Encaustic Paving Tiles, &c. 

I 

\ MANUFACTUEEES OF SOFA, OHAIE & BED SPEINGS. 
A LARGE STOCK ALWAYS ON HAND. 

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FOR 



1877=8. 




MONTREAL : 
JOHN DOUGALL & SON, 



PUBLISHERS. 



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Whilst no man had the means of knowing anything about the weather, 
beyond his sight, or the " feeling of his own instruments," it was 
scarcely possible to foretell changes of importance at a distance, as 
well as on the spot ; but now the case is exceedingly different. A 
daily glance at the published ''Weather Reports, "a recollection of 
their principal features during the few previous days, a look at the 
" glasses " at home, and an eye turned occasionally to the heavens, 
enables anyone who pleases to take the trouble to foresee and 
foretell accurately, after a little practice, the principal changes of 
our very variable, though regularly varying climate. — Steinmetz. 



Registered in accordance with the Act of Parliament, in the year one thousand eight 
hundred and seventy -seven, by John Dougall & Son, in the Office of the 
Minister of Agriculture, at Ottawa. 

Printed and Electrotrped at the Witness Establishment, 33 to 37 St. Bona 
venture Street, Montreal. 



INTRODUCTION. 



"How are You ? Fine Day !" is a fair sample of the customary I 

greeting of the members of the Anglo Saxon race the world over, ♦ 

whether it rains, blows, hails, snows, or the sun shines aloft. An f 

Egyptian would greet a friend under similar circumstances with " How j 

goes the perspiration?" a Greek of the present time.with, " What do I 

you do ?" a Dutchman, u How do you fare?" a Chinaman, " Have you j. 

eaten your rice?" or " Is your stomach in good order?" a Russian, f 

" How do you live on?" or the very familiar, "Devil take you;" an t 

Arab, " God grant thee His favor;" a Turk, "Be under the care of ; 

God;" a Persian, " Is thy exalted condition good ?" a Japanese, "Do j 

not hurt me ;" and a Burmese, kissing the friend, " Give me a smell." f 

It appears from these illustrations that in the matter of salutation the j 

Anglo-Saxon has almost a monopoly of the weather, and it is not J 

wonderful that he has a special interest in knowing what weather is to j 

come, and has ever endeavored, and will continue to endeavor, to peer f 

into the approaching seasons. Mr. Vennor contends that this desire is « 

not without reason, and that nature has given her students very good j 

ground to work upon in endeavoring to foretell weather. He argues £ 

that as a shepherd knows from experience what Jdnd of day the morrow ♦ 

will be, by indications which never lie, any one, if he had the same f 

experience in years, could as surely foretell the character of the coming | 

year by the one preceding it. The great difficulty met immediately on | 

the threshold of this theory is, that while there are three hundred and \ 

sixty-five or three hundred and sixty-six days, as the case may be, in a j 

year, in this degenerate age, there are but some three score years * 

and ten in a lifetime, and therefore the experience necessary to foretell i 

the seasons is very difficult to obtain. This may be overcome by ♦ 

keeping a record of each day's character. That such a record will j 

be soon obtained there can be no doubt, and the result of constant thought j 

and enquiry can have but one conclusion. Mr. Vennor does not put I 

forward his predictions as prophecies, but simply as opinions based on \ 

certain facts, and with the gallant Admiral Fitzroy, the founder of the ♦ 

present extensive and valuable meteorological system, may say, | 
"Certain it is, that although our conclusions maybe incorrect, our 
judgment erroneous, the laws of nature and the signs afforded to man 
are invariably true. Accurate interpretation is the deficiency." This 
accurate interpretation Mr. Vennor holds may be attained to, and study 
with that result in view will be rewarded by the most satisfactory 
results. 

But this year Vennor's Almanac is not confined to the foretelling 
of seasons. It will have a new interest from the large amount of 
information and weather lore it contains ; Virgil, Shakespeare, 
Longfellow, Howard, Admiral Fitzroy, Doctor LoorAis, Steinmetz, 
Howe, Butler and other observers have been made to contribute to it, 
and the information obtained as the result of their observations will 



t 



4 INTRODUCTION. — KINGSTON. 



* prove of value to those wise enough to take advantage of the experience 
! of others. A few weather proverbs and superstitious rhymes have also 
| been given a place in this little volume, but it is to be hoped that they will 
f not unsettle the minds of any. If such be likely in the case of any reader, 
t he is referred to the words of one of the most painstaking collectors of 
I these sayings, the poet Gay, who, as an antidote to his work, says : 

\ " Let no such vulgar tales debase tliy mind ; 

* Nor Paul, nor S within rule the clouds or wind." 

t But still some of these fables are based on shrewd observations, 

t and sometimes deserve more attention than they obtain. 

\ The pictures and descriptions of the different clouds given will 

| prove an interesting study, and supplemented by close observation will 

| enable the student to intelligently "discern the face of the sky." 

\ It is a pleasing fact to note that during the year, all over the 

: country, there have been many who have utilized the memoran- 

\ dum pages of the Almanac for 1877, noting therein interesting and 

* curious incidents, " weatherwise and otherwise." In this regard 
r Andrew Steinmetz, in his "Manual of Weather Casts and Prognostica- 
^ tions on Land and Sea," says: "Every pocket book should have 
I blank pages headed ' The Weather,' for each month of the year. It is 
\ obvious that by a little study and attention any one may soon become 
I weatherwise, at least sufficiently so for ordinary purposes." 

: It is hoped that by the yearly publication of this manual, a new 

I interest will be given to one of the most interesting and generally use- 

t ful of studies, and that Mr. Vennor's facts and theories, whether 

J right or wrong, will have the effect of causing a further investigation 

j into Nature's secrets which will result in the increased usefulness and in- 

j telligence of the learner, who will be impressed the more he studies 

\ with the wisdom of Him " who doeth all things well." 



J. WADDINGHAM & SON'S 
j STBjlJl PIjJ-IJVIJVG MILL, 



I 



ONTARIO STREET, 

KINGSTON. - - - ONT. 

Manufacturers of Sash, Doors, Blinds, Mouldings and Architraves. 
All kinds of House-finishing constantly on hand. Price list furnished 
on application. 

G. E. ASHLEY, 

MANUFACTURER OF 

Shirts, Collar's and Caffs, 

AND DEALER TN GENTS' FURNISHINGS, &c. 

Steam Laundry attached. 
PRINCESS STREET, - - - KINGSTON. 
French Yoke Shirts made to order. 

Happy is the man that wins and wears 
A cotton shirt that never tears. 



ECLIPSES IN 1878. \ 



In the year 1878 there will be four eclipses — two of the sun and 
two of the moon. 

The first will be an annular eclipse of the sun, on February 2nd ; 

not visible from Canada. I 

The second will be a partial eclipse of the moon, on February f 

17th ; partly visible in Canada. It will begin at Halifax, N. S., 4I1. J 

27m. in the morning, and at Montreal 3I1. '47m. It will end at f 

Halifax 9I1. 25m., and at Montreal 8h. 46m. 1 

The third will be a total eclipse of the sun, on the 29th July, visible «• 

in North America as a partial eclipse. It begins on the Earth 3I1. 4m. $ 

evening, mean time at Halifax, in longitude 144 50' east of Greenwich, j 

and latitude 41 ° 21' north. Central Eclipse begins at 4I1. lorn. I 

evening, in longitude II7°42' east, and latitude 54 14' north. Ends \ 

on the Earth 8h. im. evening, in longitude 69 45' west, and latitude t 

3° 37' north. This Eclipse begins at Halifax about 5I1. 30 m. evening, t 

and at Montreal about 5I1. 10m. The greatest observations will i 
occur a few minutes before the setting of the sun. 

The fourth will be a partial eclipse of the moon, on August 1 2th, $ 

and will be visible in part. In Halifax it begins in the evening at 5I1. t 

8m., and in Montreal at 4I1. 37m. The moon rises about 7 o'clock, 1 

and the last contact with the shadow will be about 9. I 

A transit of Mercury will occur on the 8th of May. It will be t 
visible between 1 1 in the morning and 9 in the evening. 

♦♦♦ t 



Chronological Cycles. — Dominical Letter, F ; Golden number, i 

j 16 ; Jewish Lunar Cycle, 14 ; Epact or Moon's Age, 16 ; Solar Cycle, | 

j II ; Julian Period, 6591 ; Jewish Year, commencing 30th September, J 

; 5638 ; Roman Indictions, 6 ; Mohammedan Year, 1395. 

; Movable Festivals. — Septuagesima Sunday, February 17th ; 

t Sexagesima Sunday, February 23rd ; Quinquagesima Sunday, March 

t 3rd ; Ash Wednesday, March 6th ; First Sunday in Lent, March 10th ; 

I Mid-Lent Sunday, March 31st ; Palm Sunday, April 14th ; Good 

j Friday, April 10th ; Easter Sunday, April 21st ; Low Sunday, April 

♦ 28th ; Rogation Sunday, May 26th ; Ascension Day, May 30th ; 
t Whitsunday, June 9th ; Trinity Sunday, June 1 6th ; Corpus Christi, 

♦ June 20th ; Advent Sunday, December 1st. 

Holidays Observed in Public Offices. — Circumcision, Jan. 

j 1st ; Epiphany, January 6th ; Annunciation Virgin Mary, March 25th ; 

l Good Friday, April 19th ; Ascension Day, May 30th ; Queen's Birth- 

♦ day, May 24th ; Corpus Christi, June 20th ; St. Peter and St. Paul, 
t June 29th ; All Saints Day, November 1st ; Conception of the Blessed 
; Virgin Mary, December 8th ; Christmas Day, December 25th. 

♦ Bank Holidays in Ontario. — Sundays, Christmas Day, New i 
; Year's Day, Ash Wednesday, Good Friday, Easter Monday, The } 
\ Queen's Birthday, and each day appointed by Royal Proclamation as a j 
t general Fast or Thanksgiving day. | 



_4 



~1 



CONTENTS. 



Aerolites — Meteoric Stones 
Calendars 



115 

10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, 50, 55, 60, 65 

94 

117 

87 

113 

5 

111 

116 

111 

5 

3 

109 

49-64 



Cholera —Prof. Mansell's Prediction 

Droughts and Rains - 

Earthquake of November - 

Earthquake, The Oregon - 

Eclipses in 1878 ------ 

Forests and Rainfall - 

Goose-bone Weather Predictions 

General Rules and Laws for Storms, Wind and Weather 

Holidays observed in Public Offices 

Introduction ------ 

January Cold Snaps at Toronto .... 

Memoranda ------- 

Meteorological Instruments — Barometer, 95 ; Thermometer, 

Hygrometer, 97 ; Rain Gauge, 93 ; Wind Gauge, 99. 
Moon and the Weather, The ----- 112 

Modern Philosophers and Lightning Rods - - - 114 

Movable Festivals ------ 5 

Review of 1877— January in Canada - - 65 

January in the United States - - 68 

February ----- 69 

March ..... 71 

April ...... 74 

May 76 

June - - - - - - 78 

July 80 

August ------ 82 

September ..... 85 

October 85 

Rainfall and Solar Spots - - - - - 116 

Showers of Toads ------- 94 

St. Patrick's Day Cold Dip 114 

Two Mild Februaries ...... HO 

Vennor's Predictions ------ 89 

Use of Birds to the Farmer .... - H5 

Weather Wisdom ...... 112 

Weather l^orecjists ...... 113 

Indications of Weather by Clouds, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, 50, 55, 60, 
65 ; by Catgut, 10 ; the Sun, 15, 27, 39 ; Flies, spiders, worms and 
bees, 15 ; Sultriness, 16 ; the Rainbow, 21 ; the Seasons, 21 ; the 
Sunrise, 22 ; the Dawn, 22 ; the Wind, 27 ; the Aurora Borealis, 
28 ; the Sun's Haze, 28 ; the Moon's Halo, 28 ; the Moon, 33 ; the 
Sky 34 ; Acorns, 34 ; Dew and Fog, 34 ; Autumn Leaves, 39 ; 
Crows, 40 ; Peacocks, 40 ; Dust 40 ; Hares, 40 ; Cats, 40 ; Spaniels, 
40 ; Frost, 40 ; Tortoises, 86. 
Weather Proverbs— New Years Day, 10 ; St. Paul's Day, 10 ; Febru- 
ary, 15 ; St. Matthew's Day, 15 ; March, 16 ; the Burrowing Dogs, 
16 ; All Fools' Day, 21 ; April, 21 ; May, 22 ; Fair Weather and 
South Wind, 27 ; St. Medard's Day, 27 ; St. Vitus' Day, 27 ; Do- 
minion Day, 28 ; Bullion's Day, 28 ; St. Swithin's Day, 28 ; Frogs 
Showers, 28 ; August, 33 ; St. Bartholomew's Day, 33 ; Holy Rood, 
34 ; Open Winter, 40 ; Onions, 40 ; St. Martin's Day, 40 ; Decem- 
ber, 45 ; Christmas, 45 ; St. Thomas' Day, 45. 



r 



INDEX TO ADVERTISEMENTS. 



t Books, Stationers, Publishing. 



| 



Henderson, Montreal - - - 11 
W. Drysdale, Montreal - - 19 
James Hope & Co., Ottawa - 25 
Charles McAdam, Montreal - 35 
Maclean, Roger & Co., Ottawa 37 
A. & W. Mackinlay, Halifax 47 
John Dougall & Son, Montreal 

47, 104, 105, 106, 133, 134 
Henry G. Vennor, Montreal 122 

A. Lavigne, Quebec, (Music) 123 
Canadian Spectator, - - - 126 
The Milton League - - - 126 
J. B. Lane, Montreal - - 127 
T. McAuley, Kingston - - 128 

Dry Goods, Boots & Shoes, 
Hats, &c. 

C. E. Ashley 4 

W. Grant, Montreal - - - 14 
John Macdonald & Co. , Toronto, 

(Dry Goods) - 24, 30, 36, 42 
Job C. Thompson & Co. , Mont. 35 
Young & McGauran, Mont- 
real, (Boots & Shoes) - 42 
&. S. Yates, Halifax, (Boots 
and Shoes) 47 

B. A. Smith, Halifax, (Dry 
Goods) 48 

J. & J. Woodley, Quebec - - 120 
Thomas Brady, Montreal - 127 
Unfermented Wine - - - 127 

Agricultural Implements. 

R. J. Latimer, Montreal - 26 
Learmonth & Sons, Montreal 29 
Copp Brothers & Co. , Hamilton 124 
Geo. W. Jones, Halifax - - 125 
W. W. Chown, Kingston - 129 

Chemists, Druggist* and 
Medicines. 

Lymans, Clare & Co. , Montreal 20 

Henry Skinner, Kingston - 21 

Northrop & Lyman, Toronto 12 

O. C. Wood, Ottawa, - - - 13 

A. Christie & Co., Ottawa - 30 

J. W. Brayley, 30 



Milburn, Bentley & Pearson, 
Toronto, (Hagyard's Pec- 
toral Balsam) 38 ; Victoria 
Syrup of Hypophosphites 
17 ; Hagyard's Yellow Oil 136 

Holman Liver Pad Company, 

Montreal 41 



Miscellaneous. 

London, Liverpool and Globe 

Insurance Co., Montreal, 

(2nd page of cover). 
W. & F, P. Currie & Co., 

Montreal, (2dpageof cover) 
The London and Canadian 

Loan Agency, Toronto, 

(3rd page of cover). 
Notman & Sandham, Photo- 
graphers, (tohyageof cover). 
J. Waddingham & Sons, 

Montreal, (Planing Mill) 4 
Stockton, Rossiter & Co., 

Montreal, 8 

Legge & Co., Montreal, - - 9 
A. Ackroyd, Ottawa, - - 13 
•S. & H. Borbridge, Ottawa J 3 
Dupuy, Taylor & Duff, Mont. 14 
Charles Alexander & Sons, 

Montreal, (Confectioners) 18 
Temperance Dining Hall, 

Montreal 18 

J. A. Simmers, Montreal 8 
Commercial Union Assurance 

Company 23 

Thomas Davidson & Co. , Mont* 29 
Eraser & Sons, Halifax, - - 43 
JohnEgan, Halifax, (Firearms) 34 
A. Delau, Montreal, and W, 

Brydon. Toronto - - - 44 
J. R. Jennett & Co., Halifax. 46 
K. J. Dolphin, Halifax - - 46 
A. M. Bell, Halifax, (Hardware) 48 
Stanton & Vicars, Toronto 101 
Ostell& Co., Montreal, - - 102 
W. D. McLaren, Montreal 107 
A. Spencer Jones & Archibald 

Young, Toronto, - - 1 1 8 

J. G. Parks, Montreal, - - 119 
St. Louis Hotel, Quebec - - 120 
Thomas Mason, Montreal - 121 



4~» 



.~a 



8 



INDEX TO ADVERTISEMENTS. 



John Ross & Co., Quebec 123 
F. T. Thomas, Quebec, - - 123 
Walker, Pallascio & Co. , Mont. 125 
CivU Rights Alliance - - - 126 
Dominion Type Foundry - 126 
Stowe's Toilet Preparations - 128 
McKelvey & Birch, Kingston 129 
J. A. Skinner, Hamilton 130 
A. Norman, Toronto, - - - 131 
John Lumbers, Toronto - - 131 
John A. Bruce, &Co., Hamil- 
ton 131 

Manufactures, Engines, &c. 
H. R. Ives & Co. Montreal - 9 
George Brush, Montreal - - 11 
Meakins & Sons, Toronto, 

Meakins & Co., Montreal 19 
To wnsend's Bedding, Montreal 23 
W. Tees, Jr., Montreal - 24 
Chown & Cunningham, King- 
ston 

John Lamb & Son, Ottawa - 
L. N. Allaire & Co., Quebec - 
Hood & Son, Montreal (Soaps) 
James Fyfe, Montreal (Scales) 
Adam McKay, Halifax - - 
A. Stephen & Son, Halifax 
Berard & Major, Montreal 
John Doty, Toronto (Engines) 102 
Drum Cabinet Manufacturing 

Co., Quebec 31 

C. Mitchell, Hamilton - - DO 



25 
30 
31 
37 
42 
46 
48 
102 



Wheeler & Wilson Manufac- 
turing Co., Montreal - - 107 

Williams Singer Sewing Ma- 
chines 108 

Carrier, Lane & po., Quebec 

and Levis 123 

A. M. Forster, Hamilton - - 130 



Produce and Commission. 



20 



Brodie & Harvie, Montreal 
Thomas Nor they, Hamilton - 132 
A. Learmonth & Co., Quebec 135 
William Kendall, Montreal - 
W. & R. Brodie, Quebec - - 
Thomas McKay & Co., Ottawa 
A. G-. McBean, Montreal - - 
John Gould & Sons, Montreal 
R. B. Mackintosh, Halifax - 
Joseph Carman, Halifax - - 
Geo. W. Jones, Halifax - - 
Robert Dunlop, Hamilton - - 



29 
31 
36 
36 
42 
43 
46 
121 
130 



Financial and Legal. 



31 



D. Lortie, Quebec - - - - 
James E. Day, Toronto (Com- 
mercial College) - - - - 29 
John Fair, Montreal - - - 36 
Meagher & Chisholm, Halifax 43 
Sutherland & Ervin, Halifax 48 
Parent Bros., Montreal (House 

and Land Agents) - - - 103 
Langlois, Angers, Larue and 
Angers, Quebec - - - - 121 

CHARLES PUNCHARD. Toronto and Montreal, CANVASSER FOR ADVERTISING. 



Stockton, Rossiter & Co., 



Manufacturers of 




and sole Dealers in 



j CALKIN'S CHAMPION AND NOVELTY WASHERS, 

FOR THE DOMINION OF CANADA. 

t Wringers? Mangles? Tubs? Clothes Morses? 

&e»? of all hinds on Sale* 
i 102 KING- STREET WEST, TORONTO. 



I 



? MONTREAL. 9 } 

PATENT AGENCY OFFICES. ! 



(ESTABLISHED 1859.) 



Civil Engineers, 



AND 



\ SOLICITORS of PATENTS \ 

| 162 St James Street, Montreal. f 

i i 

e Agencies at Washington, London, and all the principal European € 
\ capitals. i 

5 . 

^ Canadian, American, British and European Patents obtained ; 

% Copyrights, Trade Marks and Designs registered ; Interferences con- 
$ ducted, and all Patent business transacted. 



H. R. IVES & CO. 



^ MANUFACTURERS OF 

$ 



l 



FOUNDRIES AND WAREHOUSES : 



Queen Street West, Montreal, f 

\ Call and inspect sampbs, or send for cuts and prices y 

1 - * 



IO 



JANUARY. 



ZMlOOITiT'S 
New Moon .... I 3rd I 9. 10 mo. 
First Quarter.. | nth | 1.53 ev. 



PHASES. 

I Full Moon I 18th I 7.17 ev. 

I Third Quarter.. | 25th | 10.56 mo. 



WEATHER PHOYEHB AKD WEATHEH WISBOSL 

If New Year's eve night-wind blow south, 

It betokeneth warmth and growth ; 

If west, much muck and fish in the sea ; 

If north, much cold and storms there will be ; 

If east, the trees will bear much fruit, 

If north-east \ flee it man and brute. 

EPIPHANY- Twelfth Day. 

Catgut shrinks in wet weather, and thus the strings of 
violins and guitars shrink and snap before rain. The old- 
fashioned weathervane consisted of a man and woman so 
fixed before a house that by the contraction of the catgut 
on the approach of wet weather, the woman entered it, while 

1st Sunday after Epiphany. 

a man, wrapped in a great coat, came out. When the weather 
grew fine, the woman came out and the man hid himself 
again. If a line of good well-dried whip cord and a plum- 
met be hung against the wall and a mark made just where 
the plummet reaches, the plummet in very moderate weather 

2nd Sunday after Epiphany. 

will be found to rise above the mark before rain, and sink 
below it as the weather becomes fair. 

If St. Paul's day (25th January) be fair and clear, 

It does betide a happy year ; 

But if it chance to snow or rain, 

3rd Sunday after Epiphany. 

Then will be dear all kinds of grain. 
If clouds or mists do dark the skie, 
Great store of birds or beasts shall die. 
— WilUfordP* Nature'* Scene* 



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Cirrus Clouds consist of long, 
! slender filaments, either parallel 
or divergent, which look like 
locks of hair (' 'mares tails"). 
I They are generally very high 
up, sometimes covering the face 
of the sky with thin transparent 
gauze. If their under surface be 
horizontal, and their fibres point 
upwards, they indicate rain ; ii 
downwards, fine weather, wind or drought. If cirrus clouds form 
during fine weather, with a falling barometer, it is almost sure to rain; 




MONTREAL. II k 

HENDERSON'S LENDING LIBRARY, \ 
191^8t. Peter Street J 

Henderson's Agency for Butterick's Cut Paper Patterns 

191 St Peter Street. 

Hendersons Magazine and News Depot. 

191 St. Peter Street. 

| Henderson, the Bookseller and Stationer, 

191 St. Peter Street. 

For Scrap Pictures and Photographs, go to 

} HENDERSON'S. 

<| For the largest and most select stock of Scripture, Birthday and 

Christmas Cards (especially the latter) held by any 

one house in the Dominion, go to 

HENDERSON'S. 

For Children's Picture Books, for Children's Annuals, for Perforated 

Mottoes, for Illuminated Texts, for Book Marks, for the 

thousand and one items of a well regulated store, for a large 

assortment, goods fresh, and prices moderate, go to 

JT. HENDERSON'S 

191 St. Peter St., (Branch 67 St. Lawrence St.,) Montreal. 



EAGLE FOUNDRY. 
14 to 34 King & Queen Streets, Montreal. 

GEORGE BRUSH, 






w 






^ o 
pq 



t3 







(IMPROVED HAND & POWER ELEVATORS, 
Specialties :K PATENT BOILER tube beaders, 
I WARRICK'S UNIVERSAL ENGINES. 



I 



TORONTO. 



P. M. Markell, West Jeddore, N. S., writes :— "I wish to 
inform you of the wonderful qualities of your Eclectric Oil. I had a 
horse so lame that he could scarcely walk ; the trouble was in the knee, 
and two or three applications completely cured him." 



;? 



WHAT THEY SAY 

OF 

BR, THOMAS' ECLECTRIC Oil, 

Messrs. NORTHROP & LYMAN are the sole agents for 
Dr. Thomas' Eclectric Oil, which is now being sold in immense 
quantities throughout the Dominion. It is welcomed by the suffering 
invalid everywhere with emotions of delight, because it banishes pain t 
and gives instant relief. This valuable specific for almost " every ill 
that flesh is heir too " is valued by the sufferer as more precious than 
gold. It is the elixir of life to many a wasted frame. If you have 
not purchased a bottle, do so at once, and keep it ready for an 
emergency. Its cheapness, 25 cents per bottle, places it within the 
reach of all. To the farmer it is indispensable, and it should be in 
every house. — London Herald 

Pools Island, Nfld., Sept. 26th, 1876. 

Dear Sir, — I have been watching the progress of your Eclectric 
Oil since its introduction to this place, and with much pleasure state 
that my anticipations of its success have been fully realized, it having 
cured me of bronchitis and soreness of nose ; while not a few of my 
"rheumatic neighbours " (one old lady in particular) pronounces it to 
be the best article of its kind that has ever been brought before the 
public. Your medicine does not require any longer a sponsor, but if 
you wish me to act as such, I shall be only too happy to have my name 
connected with your prosperous child. I am yours, &c, 

JAMES CULLEN. 

W. W. McLellan, Lyn, P. O., N. S., writes :— "I was afflicted 
with rheumatism and had given up all hopes of a cure. By chance I 
saw Dr. Thomas' Eclectric Oil recommended. I immediately sent 
(fifty miles) and purchased four bottles, and with only two applica- 
tions I was able to get around, and although I have not used one 
bottle I am nearly well. The other three bottles I gave around to my 
neighbours, and I have had so many calls for more that I felt bound 
to relieve the afflicted by writing to you for two dozen bottles." 



Five to thirty drops of Thomas' Eclectric Oil will cure common Sore Throat. 
It never fails in Croup. It "will cure a cold or cough in twenty-four to forty-eight 
hours. One bottle has cured Bronchitis of eight years' standing ; recent case* are cured 
in three to six days. It has restored the voice where the person had not spoken 
$ above a whisper in live years. As an outward application in all eases of pain or 
)i lameness, nothing like it has ever been known. One bottle will cure any case of 
\ Lame Back or Crick in the Back. For diseases of the Spine and Contraction of the 
\ Muscles it is unequalled. Iu rheumatic or any other pain the first application does 
C you good. It stops Ear Ache and the pain of a Burn in three minutes, and is alto- 
<r gether the best and cheapest medicine ever offered to the people. 
e Sold by all Medicine Dealers. Price 2o ceras. 

I NORTHROP &l LYMAN, Toronto, 0., Proprietors for the Dominion. 




OTTAWA. 



*3 



TO LADIES. 




J±, ACKROYD, 

MANUFACTURER OF 

Corsets. Bustles and Human Hair 
k Switches, Curls, Chignons, <fcc„ 

IBozrlim. Wools SC30.C3. Fancy G-oocis T 

E. Butterick 6° Co.'s Pattern Agency \ 

86 SPARKS STREET, Ottawa. 

S. & H. BOEBRIDGE, 

Wholesale and Retail Manufacturers 
and Dealers in 

Harness, Saddles, Trunks, Valises, 
Carpet and Palissier Bags, Satchels, 
Horse Clothing, &c, 

\ Corner of Rideau and Mosgrove Streets, 
1 OTTAWA. 




CANCER CURE. 

OTTAWA, ONT. 

TREATMENT W ITHO UT THE KNIFE. 

0. C. WOOD, Esq.. M.D. 

Dear Doctor, — You enquired after my health and views relative 
to your treatment of the cancer or cancerous affection in my lip— now 
just eleven years ago -in reference to which I have to express my 
gratitude to an over-ruling Providence that I was led to an acquaintance 
with you, and became a subject of treatment by you. My lip had been 
sore at least seven (7) years, exceedingly painful, and for two or three 
years before you took it in hand, almost unendurable. All sorts of 
experiments had been submitted to by me, embracing caustics, 
excoriation— everything indeed but the surgical knife - and in vain ; 
for it always returned, and worse than before. Your treatment effected 
a speedy, complete and permanent cure. The cancerous humor seems 
thoroughly expurgated from my blood. I have now for a long time 
used nothing antagonistic as at first, nor any stimulant or tonic to keep 
up my system ; and yet my health is perfect, and, at the age of 66, 
I am laboring with a vigor equal, if not superior, to any other part of 
my laborious life. 

You are at liberty to make any use of this you may judge proper. 
Yours gratefully, 

JOHN CARROLL, 
Don Mount, Ontario. Wesleyan Methodist Minister. jj> 

\ 




MONTREAL. 




ESTABLISHED 1864 . 

ff. ORME9 A CO., 

Importers of Gent's First-Class Furnishing Goods, 
249 ST. JAMES STEEET, Opposite Ottawa Hotel, 
MO]STTnEA.Ij. 
, Collars, Cuffs, 

Having since we commenced business paid great attention to our Shirt Department, 
we are naopy to think that our endeavors to please and meet the views of our cus- 
tomers, in this respect, have been crowned with success. Our Order Book shows an 
increasing list every season, and we are in the position to give references in nearly 
every city and town in the Dominion. The ability to cut shirts so as to fit correctly 
is not acquired in a dav or a year, which has been illustrated by the many abortive 
attempts which annually occur. Our advantages over the many must be apparent 
from the following facts, viz :— Our Cutter is a gentleman of long practical experience ; 
our Work-Shop is on the premises (and we are the only establishment in the city 
favored in this way) ; and the hands we employ are all first- el iss. Gentlemen 
favoring us with their orders are measured by the cutter himself, the advantage of 
which is evident ; whereas, at the generality of stores, the clerk who happens to 
address the party requiring the shirts goes through the form of measuring, and then 
the order is sent out to be cut and made, "good luck" being trusted tor the fit ; 
consequently, gentlemen favoring us wish their orders can with confidence rely 
upon getting good-fitting and well-made shirts. Send your orders to 

-w\ oiRA.:ixrT sc co., 
Practical Shirt-Makers, 

249 ST. JAMES STREET, MONTREAL. 



DUPUY, TAYLOR & DUFF, 

Official Assignees, Accountants, 

AND 

Commissioners for Taking Affidavits, 

AND 

Collection of Accounts throughout the Dominion, 
353 NOTRE DAME STREET, 

Opposite Exchange Bank, MONTREAL. 



LOUIS DUPUY, Official Assignee. 

JOHN TAYLOR \ Commissioners of the Superior Court of Lower Canada, 

JOHN M. M. DUFF, 5 and for Province of Ontario. 



, :> 



.' 7 »'WW ! ^' 



^iiy^j^g/S^!^^^^^ ^/^-«S^/!^^ 



FEBRUARY. 



15 



New Moon .... I 2nd I 3. 24 mo. 
First Quarter. .. | loth | 8.23 mo. 



PHASES. 

II Full Moon I 17th I 6.23 mo. 

II Third Quarter . | 23rd | 10. 19 ev. 



WKATHEH PRJVEBS S AND WEATKEH WISDOM. 

If February gives much snow, 

A fine summer it doth foreshow. — French Proverb. 

4th Sunday after Epiphany. 

Above the rest, the sun, who never lies, 
Foretells the change of weather in the skies ; 
For if he rise unwilling to his race, 
Clouds on his brow and spots upon his face, 
Or if through mists he shoot his sullen oeams, 

5th Sunday after Epiphany. 

Frugal of light, in loose and straggling streams, 
Suspect a drizzling day, and southern rain, 
Fatal to fruits, and flocks, and promised grain. — Virgil. 
A dusty march, a snowy February, a moist April, and 
a dry May, presage a good year. — French Proverb. 

Septuagesima Sunday. 

Fine days in February are all borrowed from April. 

— Canadian Proverb 
February's nights, from the 22nd to the 28th are called 
in Sweden " steel nights'' from their cutting severity. 

Sexagesima Sunday. 

St. Matthew breaks the ice ; if he finds none he will 
make it. 

Before rain, flies cling to the ceiling or disappear ; 
spiders are restless, and frequently drop from the wall ; 
frogs croak importunately ; worms creep out of the ground ; 
bees cease to leave their hives, either remaining in them all 
day, or else flying only to a short distance. 

The cumulus cloud usually 
consists of a hemispherical or 
convex mass, rising from a 
horizontal base. It is much 
denser than the cirrus, and forms 
in the lower regions of the atmo- 
sphere. If it is fleecy and sails 
against the wind, it indicates 
rain ; but when the outline is 
very hard, and it comes up with 
If cumulus clouds get smaller 
if they increase at sunset, expect 



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27 


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^^^y^V 



CUMULUS. 

the wind, it foretells fine weather, 
towards evening, expect fair weather ; 
a thunderstorm at night. 



i6 



MARCH. 



| New Moon . . 
; First Quarter 



zmzooist's 

I 3rd J 10.24 ev. 
I nth J n. 7 ev. 



PHASES. 

II Full Moon I 18th I 4.13 ev. 

II Third Quarter. . | 25th j 11.56 e v. 



10 
11 
12 
13 
14 
15 
16 

17 

18 

19 

20 
21 

22 
23 
24 
25 
26 

27 
28 

29 
30 



Fri 
Sat 
Sun 
Mon 
Tues 
Wed 
Thu 
Fri 
Sat 
Sun 
Mon 
Tues 
Wed 
Thu 
Fri 
Sat 
Sun 
Mon 
Tues 
Wed 
Thu 
Fri 
Sat 
Sun 
Mon 
Tues 
Wed 
Thu 
Fri 
Sat 
3i|Sun 



WEATHKR PROVERB S AKD WEATHER WISDOM* 

March comes in with adders' h«ads, and goes out with 
peacocks' tails. — Scotch Proverb. 

Quinquagesima— Shrove Sunday. 

When March is like April, April will be like March. 
A March without water dowers the king's daughter. 

— French Proverbs. 
When March thunders, tools and arms get rusty. 

— Portuguese Proverb. 

1st Sunday in Lent. 

A peck of March dust, and a shower in May, 
Make the corn green and the fields gay. — English 
Proverb. 

Sultriness, or the oppressive feeling we sometimes 
experience, shows that the air is very damp ; it is already 

2nd Sunday in Lent. 

saturated with vapor, and therefore the evaporation from 
our bodies is checked ; hence the oppressive feeling. 

The three first days of March, (old style) are called the 
borrowing days, for as they are remarked to be unusually 
stormy, it is feigned that March had borrowed them from 
April to extend the sphere of his rougher sway. — Note in 

3 r d Sunday in Lent . [ ' 'Heart of Mid Loth fa*." 

March borrowit from April 
Three days, and they were ill ; 
The first was frost, the second was snow, 
The third was cauld as ever't could blaw. — Scotch 
Proverb. 
4th Sunday in Lent. 



The stratus cloud is a widely 
extended, continuous horizontal 
sheet, often covering the entire 
sky with a nearly uniform veil. 
This is the lowest of the clouds, 
Hi and sometimes descends to the 
earth's surface. It is seen in the 
i evening, and if it should disap- 
pear in the morning, the finest 
stratus. weather may be expected. When 

combined with the cirrus it forms the cirro stratus or mackerel sky, 
which indicates fair weather for that day, but rain a day or two 
after. 





^ TORONTO. 

THE VICTORIA SYRU P 

OF 

For General Debility and all Derangements of the 
Nervous System. 

«». «» » o » 

EFFECTS OF THE TREATMENT. 

3 . . 

\ I . Stimulates and increases the nervous energy to its maximum 

J force. 

? 2. Increases the quantity and improves the quality of the blood. 

« 3. Strengthens the nutritive functions, thus maintaining those three 

\ conditions of robust health at their highest degree of intensity com- 

3 patible with physical enjoyment. 

•PERSONS FOR WHOM ADAPTED. 

3 

3 Professional or Business Men, whose minds are actively oc- 

? cupied or concentrated on business during long hours, thus consuming 

< brain force ; or whose office confinement prevents a due amount of 
J exercise or pure air. 

3 Physictans, Students, Nurses, &c., who do not get the requisite 

J amount of sleep or recreation. 

\ Clergymen, Lecturers, Teachers, and those whose mental ap- 

5 plication or mentai worry is of a long • continuous character, causing 

3 weakening of nerve force. 

Artisans, Labourers, Mariners, &c, whose occupation or 

<$ exposure has a depressing effect on the vital powers. 

i Persons Affected with Grief, or of a Fretting Disposition. 

3 Those Convalescent from Disease. 

) Children of Unhealthy Parents. 

•? Fragile Children. 

% Children of very Rapid Growth. i 

J In fact, all persons of sedentary habits, or those who, either from ex- % 

3 cessive labour of body or brain, are called upon for a greater expenditure \ 

I of nervous or vital force than is or can be supplied through the normal e 

\ channels of recuperation. J 

< Activity of every kind, and depression of whatever nature or degree, i? 
<? are followed by an undue waste of the phosphorus of the system, as is A 
\ proved by an increase in the excretions of the " phosphates.'* If this \ 
3 waste is not arrested by rest, nutrition, and a re-supply of the element, S 
\ nervous debility and an impoverishment of the blood are inevitable \ 

< consequences, and both are marked characteristics of pulmonary disease. ? 

MILBURN, BENTLEY & PEARSON, 

\ PROPRIETORS, 

TOROISTTO. 



T & MONTREAL AND TORONTO. 



Gums urnim k SONS, 

Wholesale and Retail 

389 & 391 NOTRE DAME STREET, 

AND 

7377 ST. CATHERINE STREET, 

(CORNER UNIVERSITY). 



% 



t 



J Marriage Breakfasts, Dinner and Supper Parties supplied. 

ALSO, 

COHFECTJOHEHY OF ALL KIHDS 

Always on hand and Fresh Daily. 



TEMPERANCE_DINING HALL. 
Soups, Joints, Entrees, Dessert, 

&c, &c, &c. 
FULL DINNER, 30 CTS. 

359 KOTRE DAME STREET, Montreal 



(ESTABLISHED 1850.) 

j. j±. sxiVE:M[:E::Ft.JS, 

(Consul of the German Emtike) 

Seed Merchant and Florist, 



t 



TOBONTO, OlSTT-, 
Importer and Grower of all kinds of Field, Garden and Flower Seeds. 

Seed Warehouse, No 96 Front Street East, 
Nearly opposite the City Weigh- House, 
Illustrated and Descriptive Catalogues sent to Purchasers on application. # 

9 



» MONTREAL — TORONTO. 



*9 



PUBLICATIONS 

ON THE IDENTITY OF THE BRITISH NATION WITH 
THE LOST TEN TRIBES. 



PROPHETIC THOUGHTS. Humbly submitted for Christian Consideration. 

Bv COMMANDED B. \V. TRACEY, R. N. Price 12c. 
PHILITIS ; or, Solution of the Mystery wbich for Four Thousand 

Years has Shrouded the Great Pyramid in Egypt. By CHARLES 

CASEY. New and Enlarged Edition. Prioe G5c. 

By PIAZZI SMYTH, Astronomer-Royal, Scotland. 

OUR INHERITANCE IN THE GREAT PYRAMID. New Edition. 

Price $5.50. 
LIFE AND WORK AT THE GREAT PYRAMID IN 1865. Thirty-six 
Plates. Price $17.00, 



PAMPHLET ON THE APOCALYPSE. 

Second Edition. Price by post 35c. 



By T. W. GREEN WELL, Esq. 



WORKS by EDWARD HINE. 
THE FORTY- SEVEN IDENTIFICATIONS. Price, post free, 20c. 
FLASHES OF LIGHT. Price, post free, 20c. 
OXFORD'S WRONG, &c. Price, post free, 17c. 
ENGLAND'S COMING GLORIES. Price, post free, 20c. 
ANGLO-SAXON RIDDLE. Price, post free, 7c, or the five bound in One 

Volume, gilted'ies, $1.10. 
LIFE FROM THE DEAD. Monthly. Vols. I, II, and III, gilt edges, each $1.75. 
THE NATION'S GLORY LEADER. Weekly. Vols. II, and III, each $1.25. 
HINE'S LEAFLETS. Nos. 1 and 2, per 100, 35c. 

Any of the above sent free by mail at above prices, 

W. DRYSDALE & CO., 
232 St. James Street, Montreal. 

JOHN MACDONALD & CO, 

Wholesale Importers 



British <i Wmm&urn Bjpy- Goods* 

21, 23, 25, 27 Wellington St., 30, 32, 34, 36 Front St., 

TORONTO. 



MEAKOTS & SOUS M3AKIHS & CO, 



176 King Street East. 

TORONTO. 



317 & 319 St. Paul Street, i 

MONTREAL. I 



lilholesale Brush Manufacturers. 



% 20 MONTREAL. 

I : 

$ B. Lyman. H. Lyman. W. H. Clare. Alex. Manson. 

ESTABLISHED 1803. 



LYMANS, CLAEE & CO., 

Wholesale Druggists, 

Manufacturers of 

Lir^eed Oil, f^ii^, &<5., 
384, 386 ST. PAUL STREET, 

MGNTBEAk- 

For all Household purposes USE ONLY 

BRODIE & HARVIE'S 

SELF-RAISING FLOUR. 



The RED LABEL brand is used for Bread, Biscuits, Pudding, &c. 

Those desiring to have the VERY FINEST Pastry and Cakes should use the 
GOLD LABEL brand. This is the iinest Hour manufactured anywhere. 

The Self-Raising BUCKWHEAT FLOUR does away with the tedious and 
uncertaiu process of raising with yeast. 

The Self-Raising GRAHAM FLOUR makes the most delicious Graham 
Bread, Biscuits and Gems. 



I 



FIRST AND EXTRA PRIZES t 

at the Provincial Exhibitions of 1865, 1808, 1872, 1873 AND 1877, and the i 
U. S. CENTENNIAL EXHIBITION MEDAL AND DIPLOMA 

were awarded to J* 

BRODIE & HARVIE'S 



SELF-RAISING FLOUR. 

All the Grocers keep it. 






APRIL. 



21 



New Moon . . 
First Quarter. 



ZMZooisrs 

. I 2nd I 4.21 ev. 
10th 10. 1 mo. 



PHASES. 

II Full Moon. ... I 17th I 1. 4 mo. 

II Third Quarter . | 24th | 3.40 mo. 




WEATHER PROVERB S AKD WEATHER WISDOM. 

If it thunders on All Fool's day, 
It brings good crops of corn and hay. 
If the first three days of April be foggy, there will be a 
flood in June. — Fluntiugdon {Eng.) Proverb. 

A cold and moist April fills the cellar and fattens the 
cow. — Portuguese Proverb. 

5th Sunday in Lent. 

Signs From the Rainbow. — If the green be large 
and bright in the rainbow, it is a sign of rain ; if the red be 
the strongest color, then there will be wind and rain 
together. After a long drought the rainbow is a sign of rain ; 

Sunday before Easter. 

after much wet it indicates fair weather. If it breaks up all at 
once, there will follow serene and settled weather. If the 
bow be seen in the morning, slight rain will follow ; if at 
noon, settled and heavy rains ; if at night, fair weather. 
The appearance of two or three rainbows indicate fair 

Easter Sunday. 

weather for the present, but settled and heavy rains in two 
or three days time. 

A severe autumn denotes a windy winter ; a windy 
winter, a rainy spring ; a rainy spring, a severe summer ; 
a severe summer, a windy autumn, so that the air on a 
balance is seldom debtor to itself. — Lord Bacon. 

Low Sunday. 

Betwixt April and May, If there be rain, 
It is worth more than oxen or grain. 



The nimbus is the true and 
B] immediate rain-cloud-^shapeless 
I but with defined outline, its edge 
j gradually shaped off from the 
I deep gray mass to transparency. 
Just before rain we may ob- 
serve what the sailors call 
scud " — small under-clouds, 
j often moving with much greater 
N . . , velocity than those above them, 

which seem sometimes stationary. 

Sir John Herschel says "anvil shaped" clouds are likely to be 
followed by a gale of wind. 



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,♦.♦.».♦_. 



MAY. 



New Moon. 
First Quarter. 
Full Moon. ... 



DVCOO^T'S 



2nd 

9th 

16th 



7-57 mo. 
5-39 ev. 
9. 38 mo. 



PHASES. 
Third Quarter. . I 23rd 



New Moon 



9.48 ev. 
I 31st | 8.54 ev. 



Wed 

Thu 

Fri 

Sat 

Sun 

Mon 

Tues 

Wed 

Thu 

Fri 

Sat 

Sun 

Mon 

Tues 

Wed 

Thu 

Fri 

Sat 

Sun 

Mon 

Tues 

Wed 

Thu 

Fri 

Sat 

Sun 

Mon 

Tues 

Wed 

Thu 

Fri 



WEATHER PftOVERS S AND WEATHER WWDOtt, 

Look at your corn in May, 

And you will come weeping away ; 

Look at the same in June, 

And you'll come home in another tune 

2nd Sunday after Easter. 

A cold May enriches no one. 

A hot May makes a fat churchyard. 

A windy May makes a fair year. — Portuguese Proverb. 
Water in May is bread all the yQax—rSpanish Proverb. 
3rd Sunday after Easter. 
Sunrise Indications. — 

Above the rest, the sun who never lies, 

Foretells the change of weather in the skies, 

For if he rise unwilling to his race, 

Clouds on his brow and spots upon his face ; 

4th Sunday after Easter. 

Or if through mists he shoot his sullen beams, 
Frugal of light, in loose and straggling streams, 
Suspect a drizzling day and southern rain, 
Fatal to fruits and flocks, and promised grain. — Virgil, 
Georgic /, 438. 

Rogation Sunday. 

If red the sun begins his race, 
Be sure the" rain will fall apace, 
A high dawn indicates wind ; a low dawn fine weather. 
A gray sky in the morning presages fine weather. 



stratus 
seen in 



.-.■__=--^r^l, _.-.:. 35^-- Cirro stratus clouds consist 

gL=F=?\*_ii=-_-r r-T=r-- IB) of delicate fibrous clouds spread 

Rout in strata, which are either 
fJM^/// yjj horizontal or but slightly in- 

y/\/y- Jjclined to the horizon. Some- 

5£ e- ~^B I times the whole sky is so mot- 

g B^S^jjg^ ^rtB ~~ Tj tied with this kind of cloud as 

JUjto resemble the back of a 

:= = z -zz=- -^ mackerel, and it is hence called 

cirro stratus, the mackerel sky. The cirro 

invarably indicates wind and rain and is almost always to be 

the intervals of storms. 



.♦.♦.♦■».».».♦. 



MONTREAL. 2$ 

nBOIAL UNION 



HEAD OFFICE, - 19 and 20 CORNHILL, LONDON. 

(Capital, - - $12,500,000. 

I 

[ Funds in Hand and Invested - $8,000,000. 

Uncalled Capital - - 11,000,000. 

FIRE DEPARTMENT. 

Insurance granted upon Dwelling Houses and Mercantile Risks, in- 
i eluding Mills and Manufactories and their contents, at reasonable rates. 

LIFE DEPARTMENT. 

Terms liberal- rates moderate — security perfect —bonuses large, 
t having heretofore averaged over 25 per cent, of the premiums paid. 

\ FRED. COLE, WESTMACOTT & WICKENS, 

Agent for Eastern Canada, Agents for Western Canada, 

43 St. Francois Xavier St., 26 Wellington St., 

Montreal. Toronto. 

\ _ 

TTSIE 

{ 

I Townshend's Pure Bedding, 

Patented, Antiseptic and Non-Contagious. 

i ' — " 

[ Hair Mattresses, Feather Beds, Bolsters and 

Pillows, Palliasses, &c. 



Old Bedding, Bed Clothes, Wearing Apparel, Carpets, } 
Curtains and all Textile Fabrics, Disinfected 

and Purified from all Impurities by <? 

Patent Process. 



I 



39 Bonaventure Street, j 

MONTREAL. \ 

\ 



24 



TORONTO, KINGSTON AND MONTREAL. 



John 

• Mould 
Ho, 
Toronto. 



STAPLE DEMETMEHT. 

GREY AND WHITE COTTONS, PRINTS, 

TICKS, DENIMS, FLANNELS, 

BLANKETS, REPS, YARNS, 

BATTINGS, WADDINGS, 

TWINES, &c. &c,. 



Wholesale Druggist, 



*9 



DEALER IN 

SEEDS, PAINTS, OILS, DRUGS, DYE STUFFS, LAMPS, &c. 

Coal Oil and Machinery Oils a specialty. 
Correspondence solicited. KINGSTON, ONT. 

W. TEES, Jr., 

Manufacturers' Agent, Commission Merchant, and Dealer in 
Plain and Fancy Furniture, 514 & 516 Craig Street. 



$mmtnn 

comprising Parlour 
Suites, Lounges, 

Easy Chairs, 

Chamber Setts, 

Sideboards, 

Dining and Centre 

Tables, 

Whatnots, &c, &c, 

at 

LOW FIGURES. 




cfunutuw 

made to ordei*. 

Bedsteads & Chairs 
in great variety. 

A large assortment 
of Spring Beds, 

Mattresses, 
&c, &c, &c, 

Cheap for Cash. 



Elegant Folding Chairs, Fancy Tables, Five o'clock Tea Tables, 
Brackets, Wall Pockets, Towel Racks, &c„ &c, suitable for holiday 
gifts, all at prices to suit the times. 

W. TEES, Jr., 514 & 516 Craig Street, Montreal. 



OTTAWA AND KINGSTON. 25 ] 

— 1 

JAMES HOPE & CO., 

22, 24 and 26 ELGIN STREET, nmqnWA ! 
45 and 47 SPARKS STREET, UllAWA, 

Manufacturing Stationers, General Bookbinders, 

AND 

Engravers, General Printers, and Lithographers, 

IMPORTERS OF 

General Stationery, Artists' Materials, School 

Books, Bibles, Church Services, Prayer 

Books, Photographic Albums, &c. 



Particular attention given to the Manufacture of 

Blank Books 

Of the best Material and Workmanship. 



Bookbinding and Paper Ruling in all their branches executed 
in the best maimer and with dispatch. 

CHOWN & CUNNINGHAM, 
Vidtofia foundry, Kir^ton, Ont, f 

} 
Manufacturers of ? 

Stoves,Wood,Cooking, Parlour & Box, I 

The Argus, Model and other Coal Stoves, | 

| 
Victor, Hill, and. other JPloixglis, ! 

I 

Iron Harrows and Field Rakes. X 

t 

TIN, SHEET IRON AND COPPER WARE, j 

Office : No. 8 BAGOT STREET. 

I 

B 



2 ° MONTREAL. 



" Send for our Annual Illustrated Circular." 

60 

FIRST PRIZES 

AWARDED, AND 

10,000 

OF THOSE RAKES SOLD 
IN FIVE YEARS. 
Manufactured only by 

G. M. COSSITT & BRO, 

Manufacturers of the Buckeye Mower, Ithaca Horse Rake, 

Reapers, Single and Combined Sawing Machines, 

Shingle Machines, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 Horse Power 

Threshing Machines, &c., &c, &c. 

Manufactory and Principal Office, BROCKVILLE, Ont. 




COSSITT'S 

Standard Implements. 

Branch Office and Warerooms for the Province of Quebec s— 

92 FOUNDLING STREET, MONTREAL. 
R. J. LATI MER , Manager. 

*5"A11 Repairs kept, and Repairing done on our machines in connection 
with Montreal Branch. 

TEE OLD BDGBTB 

Old in name only, but 
new in every real 

IMPEOVEMENT 

of the day. Small sec- 
tions, short quick stroke, £5 
wrought iron and malle- 
able used instead of cast, 

I &c, &c, &c. 

J " Send for our Annual Illustrated Circular" 




JUNE. 



27 



IMIOOIISHS 
First Quarter.. I 7th In. 1 ev. 
Full Moon J 14th I 6.58 eve. 



PHASES. 

I Third Quarter . I 22nd I 2.22 ev. 

I New Moon . . . | 30th j 7. 37 mo. 



WEATHER PftOVEBS S AND WEATHER WUOOW. 
A red sun has water in his eye. 

Sunday after Ascension. 

Fair weather for a week, with a southern wind, is likely 
to produce a drought if there has been much rain out of the 
south before. — Admiral Fitzroy. 

If on the eighth of June it rain, 

It foretells a wet harvest men sain. 

Whit Sunday. 

If it rain on June 8th (St. Medard) it will rain forty 
(iays later, but if it rain on June 19th (St. Protais), it rains 
for forty days after. — French Proverb. 

If St. Vitus Day, (June 15th), be rainy weather, 

It will rain for thirty days together. 
Trinity Sunday. 

A frequent change of wind with agitation in the clouds 
denotes a storm. 

If the wind follows the sun's course expect fair weather. 

When the wind veers against the sun, 

Trust it not, for back t'will run. 

1st Sunday after Trinity. 

The southern wind 
Doth play the trumpet to his purposes, 
And by his hollow whistling in the leaves 
Foretells a tempest and a blustering day. 

— Shakespeare, Henry IV. 

2nd Sunday after Trinity. 



Cirro cumulus clouds consist 
of small well defined rounded 
masses, in close proximity, and 
are generally formed by descend- 
ing cirrus clouds. They are 
most frequent in summer, and 
on account of their fleecy ap- 
pearance, they are sometimes 
called woolly clouds. When 
permanent they are a sign of 

increasing temperature and dry weather. In Buckinghamshire (Eng). 

they are called packets boys, and are said to be packets of rain soon 

to be opened. 



I 


Sat 


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CIRRO CUMULUS. 



JULY. 



First Quarter 
Full Moon. .. 



ZMIOOITsRS 

I 7th j 3.27 mo. 
I 14th J 6. 1 mo. 



PHASES, 
j Third Quarter. . I 22nd I 7.221110. 
I New Moon . . . | 29th | 4.47 ev. 



1 
2 
3 
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5 
6 

7 
8 

9 

10 
11 

12 

<3 

*5 
16 

<7 
18 

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- 2 3 
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26 

^7 
28 
29 

30 



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WEATHER PfiQYESB S AND WEATHEfc WISDOM 

If the first of July it be rainy weather, 
It will drizzle for a month together. 
If Bullion's day (July 4th) be dry, there will be a good 
harvest. 

The moon with a circle brings water in herbeak. 

3rd Sunday after Trinity. 

The Aurora Borealis when very bright forebodes 
stormy, moist, unsettled weather. 

A haze around the sun indicates rain ; it is caused by 
fine rain falling in the upper regions of the air ; when it 
occurs a rain of five or six hours duration may be expected. 

4th Sunday after Trinity. 

In this month is St. Swithin's day. (15) 
On which, if that it rain they say, 
Full forty days after it will 
Of more or less some rain distill. 

— Poor Robins Almanack, ibgj. 

5th Sunday after Trinity. 

A halo round the moon is an indication of rain, it being 
produced by line rain in the upper regions of the atmosphere. 
The larger the halo the nearer the rain clouds and the 
sooner rain may be expected. A halo round the sun has 
often been followed by heavy rains. 

6th Sunday after Trinity. 

A shower of rain in July when the corn begins to fill 
Is worth a plough of oxen and all belongs theretill. 




CUMULO STRATUS. 



Cumulo stratus clouds consist 

m of the cumulus blended with the 

stratus, and are formed in the 

j| interval between the first appear- 

^^= ance of the fleecy cumulus and 

l ^ the rain. On the approach of a 

^^^ thunder storm they are often seen 

H in great magnificence, represent- 

_B ing huge towers, rocks, and 

gigantic forms. 



" When clouds appear like rocks and towers, 
The earth's refreshed by frequent showers." 



MONTREAL AND TORONTO. 2 9 j 



FROST &l WOOD, Smith's Falls, Ont., 



5 J 

j 



? 



/M|:c E_n_J%, _______ ^ S } 

"^ r7 -l_ rrf _^ ^~* 

Manufacturers of Mowers & Reapers, Horse Hay Rakes, Threshing Machines, \ 
Ploughs, &c. &o., and all descriptions of Farming Implements. Send for Price List. \ 

THOUSANDS OF THE ABOVE PLOW IN USE. 
IiARMONTH <fc SONS, Agents, 33 College Street, Montreal. ? 

THOMAS DAVIDSON & CO.. 

JAPANNEJR.S, 

DOMINION STAMPING WORKS, | 

WHOLESALE TLNWARE, 
Factory : DOMINION, ALBERT & DELISLE STS., \ 
City Office : No. 27 WILLIAM STREET, 

0VCO2srT^=LE__.Ij. 



■ 



i 



WILLIAM EBNCALL, 
Produce Shipper and Btiyer 

OF 

Cheese, Butter, <fcc., <fec. 

FOR THE ENGLISH MARKETS, 

43 WILLIAM STREET, MONTREAL. f 

GOOD BOOK-KEEPINGS- \ 

To a man of business is equal to one-half of his capital. — Mr. Com- \ 

missioner Foubtangue, Court of Bankruptcy, London, England. \ 

DAY'S COMMERCIAL COLLEGE, I 

TORONTO, \ 

i (Established 1862.) A Select Business School for Young Men. Ad- \ 

) vantages offered : Individual and thorough instruction by an experi- J 

f enced Accountant, and course of study arranged to meet the capacity £ 

I of pupils. For terms address, prepaid, \ 

I JAMES E. DAY, Accountant, } 

, College Rooms, 96 King street West- \ 



TORONTO AND OTTAWA. 




TORONTO. 



JtOHH MACOOHALG & CO., 

keep constantly on hand one of the largest and most attractive stock of 

Carpets and General Hoo Furnishing Goods 

in the Dominion. 
NOVELTIES CONSTANTLY ARRIVING. 

21, 23, 25, 27, Wellington Street, 
30, 32, 34, 3G, Front Street, 

JOHN LAMB & SON, 

ENGINEERS, 

SPARKS ST., Ottawa. 

The Construction of FLOURING. 
BARLEY, OATMEAL and SAW 
MILLS attended to. 

A specialty made of our improved 
machinery ior manufacturing Oat- 
meal, including our Potent G:oat 
Scieen for taking out Buckwheat, 
&c. 

Gang Lath Machines, with Gangs 
of Irom two to ten saws. 

Li;mb's Patent Groat Screen, 
W< od f-hapers, Band Saws, Der- 
ricks, Hoists, and all kinds of Grist 
and fcaw Mill Furnishings made to 
order. 

All sizes of LAMB'S DOUBLE 
ACTION WATEI! WHEEL 
kept on hand. The past record of 
this wheel proves it to be the BEST 
WHEEL now offered to the public. 
risp Plana and Specifications of 
Mill Work, Surveys of Mill 
Sites, Machinery, Drawing, 
&c, made out at moderate rates- 




A. CHRISTIE & CO., 

Chemists and Druggists, 

SPARKS STREET, (corner METCALFE), 
OTTAWA. 



Country Physicians supplied with Medicines of same quality as those we use 
in dispensing. 

Full supply of Trusses and Surgical Appliances. 

She*»t Wax, White and of all colors, and all materials for the manufacture of 
Wax Flowers. 

A. CHRISTIE & CO. 



!s/ , i^*^ s c«/ v VW W ! ^' s ^^' , V :, ^ ; ^^V 3 V^Sr s ^r^« 



■V^i^V^s/^ 



QUEBEC. 





Business Established 1832. 

clilranisoMFW, 

MANUFACTURERS OF 

Sis Rich and Plain Furniture, Upholstery, &c, 

Office and Warerooms : 215 ST, PAUL ST., nr.nl.pp 
Factory and Lumber Yard : 158 ST. PAUL ST,, yll UDU. 
S. W. DRUM, Secretary and Treasurer. T. CRAIG, Manager 



ID. LORTIE, 
Public Accountant Financial Agent 



AND 



commission msp.ob:aitt, 

51 Richelieu Block, Dalhousie Street, 

QUEBEC 

W. & B. BRODIE, 

Gfer\efcil don\n\i^ioi\ fyEefdVai\t$, 

AND DEALERS IN 

Flour, Produce and Provisions. 
5 Arthur Street, p 

NEXT BANK OF MONTREAL, V^UtBtO. 

ESTABLISHED 1867. 



L. W. ALLAIRB a v v .» 

Manufacturer's Agents and Commission Merchants, 

Warehouse : Sault-au-Matelot Street. 

Sewing Machine Store and Office : 

Corner of Peter and James Sts., opposite Quebec Bank. 

QUEBEC. 



32 MONTREAL. 

THE GREAT REMEDY. 

WlliiPi 

Pulmonary Cherry Balsam. 

This perfect preparation, curing rapidly all Coughs and ordinary- 
colds, is also a positive remedy for Bronchitis, Asthma, Quinsy, Laryn- 
gitis and Consumption. 

It is a purely vegetable preparation, and by chemically combining 
the ingredients with great care and scientific skill we have a REMEDY 
THAT CAN BE RELIED ON. It quickly assimilates with the bone 
and blood, renewing the lung tissue, and making a marked improvement 
at once. 

It enlivens the muscles, and assists the skin to perform its duties, 
and imparts strength to the system. 

It loosens the phlegm, induces free spitting, and will be found very 
agreeable to take. It is not a violent remedy, but harmless in its na- 
ture—emollient, warming, searching and effective— powerful only in 
CURING ALL LUNG DISEASES. 

A single trial will prove its efficacy in curing all Pulmonary Disor- 
ders over every other remedy known to mankind. 

If all the Chemists in the country were to try and discover a speci- 
fic for the cure of Throat and Lung Diseases, its CURATIVE POW- 
ERS COULD NOT BE GREATER THAN THOSE WHICH ARE 
WROUGHT BY WILSON'S PULMONARY CHERRY BALSAM. 

This great remedy is performing too much good to make it neces- 
sary for us to do more than urge people to try it, and you will have no 
occasion to resort to other remedies, no matter how obstinate your cough 
may be. 

As a remedy in Pulmonary diseases no medicine can obtain a higher 
or more deserved reputation. 

It may be taken by old or young. 

Sold in Bottles at 25 and 40 cents each— the 40 cent size containing 
double the 25 cent size. Sold by all druggists and dealers in medicine. 

Address all orders to 

; J. W. BRAYLEY, 

\ 18 ! AND 488 ST. PAUL STREET, MONTREAL. 



r 



AUGUST. 



33 



First Quarter. 
Full Moon . . . 



IMIOOZLsT'S 
, I 5th I 8.26 mo. 
, J 1 2th I 7.23 eve. 



PHASES. 
I Third Quarter. | 20th i 11.141110. 
New Moon ... 28th 1.6 mo 



Thu 

Fri 

Sat 

Sun 

Mon 

Tues 

Wed 

Thu 

Fri 

Sat 

Sun 

Mon 

Tues 

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Sat 

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Sat 

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Mon i 

Tues! 

Wed! 

Thu; 

Fri 

Sat I 



WEATHEH PKOYERB S AKD WKATHEH WISDOM. 

When it rains in August it rains honey and wine. 
— French and Spanish Proverbs. 

A wet August never brings dearth. — Italian Proverb. 

7th Sunday after Trinity. 

When first the moon appears, if then she shrouds 
Her silver crescent tipped with sable clouds, 
Conclude she bodes a tempest on the main, 
And brews for fields impetuous floods of rain ; 
Or if her face with firey flushings glow, 
Expect the rattling winds aloft to blow. 

8th Sunday after Trinity. 

But four nights old (for that's the surest sign), 

With sharpened horns, if glorious then she shine, 

Next day, not only that, but all the moon, 

Till her revolving race be wholly run, 

Are void of tempests both by land and sea. — Virgil. 

9th Sunday after Trinity. 

If it rain on St. Bartholomew's Day (24th August), it 
will rain forty days after. — Roman Proverb. 

If the twenty-fourth of August be fair and clear, 
Then hope for a prosperous autumn that year. 

10th Sunday after Trinity. 

For I fear a hurricane, 
Last night the moon had a golden rim, 
And to-night no moon I see. — Longfellow, Wreck of 
the Hesperus 



Best Mode of Observing Clouds. — In order to be able to 
distinguish well the form of clouds, it is often necessary to diminish 
their brilliancy by viewing them through a glass of a deep blue color, 
or by reflection from a mirror of black glass. We are thus able to detect 
peculiarities which entirely escape observation with the unassisted eye. 
— Loomis. 

When cumulus clouds become heaped up to leeward during a strong 
wind at sunset, thunder may be expected during the night. 

While any of the clouds, except the nimbus, retain their primitive 
4 forms, no rain can take place, and it is by observing the changes and 
! transitions of cloud-form that weather may be predicted. — Howard. 



\ 



34 



SEPTEMBER. 



First Quarter . 
Full Moon 



MOOU 7 S 
I 3rd | 3.32 eve. 
j nth I 10.56 mo. 



PHASES 
I Third Quarter. . | 19th 
New Moon . . 



1.37 ev. 
26th I 9.i7mo. 



1 
2 
3 
4 
5 
6 

7 
8 

9 
10 
n 
12 
*3 
14 
15 
16 

17 
1 

19 

20 

2 

22 

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26 

27 

28 

29 

30 



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Mon 



weather proyerr $ AKO WEATHER WtSDOW- 
11th Sunday after Trinity, 

W 7 hen it is evening, ye say it will be fair weather, for 
the sky is red ; and in the morning, it will be foul weather 
to-day, for the sky is red and lowering. — Matthew 
XVI., 2 and 3. 

12th Sunday after Trinity. 

Holy Rood, August 14. — The passion flower blossomed 
about this time ; the flower is said to present a resemblance 
to the cross or rood, the nails, and the crown of thorns used 
at the crucifixion. — Circle 0/ the seasons. 

A fruitful oak a long and hard winter. 

13th Sunday after Trinity. 

If dry be the buck's horn, 
On Holyrood morn, 
'Tis worth a vest of gold ; 
But if wet it be seen 
E'er Holyrood e'en, 

Bad harvest is foretold — Yorkshire Provero. 
14th Sunday after Trinity. 

A bright yellow sky at sunset presages wind ; a pale 
yel low, wet- -A dm iral Fitzroy. 

A dark gloomy blue sky is windy, but a light, bright 
blue sky indicates fine weather ; when the sky is of a sickly 
looking greenish hue, wind or rain may be expected — Ibid. 

15th Sunday after Trinity. 

Dew and fog are indicators of fine weather. — Ibid. 



Weather Indicated by Movements of Clouds. — If small 
clouds increase, expect much rain. If large clouds decrease, expect 
fair weather. Soft looking or delicate clouds foretell fine weather, with 
moderate or light breezes ; hard edged oily looking clouds, wind. As wind 
is only air in motion, its first effect is in diiving the clouds before it. 
Hence when clouds float about in a serene sky, from whatever quarter 
they come, you may expect wind. If they are collected in one place 
they will be dispersed by the rays of the sun. If they come from the 
north-east they indicate wind ; if from the south, great rains, but if, 
from whatever quarter, you see them driving about at sunset, they are 
sure signs of an approaching tempest. 




***$ 



FURS, HATS AND FACTS ! 

It is a well-known fact that the Fur 
business is a trade few know about, and in 
making your purchases the first thing to 
do is to ask yourself or your friend, 
"Where shall I go to buy my Furs?"' 
Our reasons for claiming your patronage 
are : — First, we have over thirty years' 
experience. Second, we import our skins 
and manufacture on the premises. Third, 

1 we mark all goods in plain figures, sell for 
cash, and have but one price. In this 

1 way the cash purchaser does not help to 
pay bad debts, which a credit store must 

make. 

Repairs done Neatly, Cheaply and 
Quickly. 

JOB C. THOMPSON & CO., 

IMPORTERS AND MANUFACTURERS OF 

HATS, OAI*^ AND FUR8, 

416 Notre Dame Street, corner St. Peter 

Established 1835. 




CHARLES McADAM, 

BOOKSELLER, 

AND DEALER IN 

Ohromos, Steel Plato Pictures, Fancy Goods, &c, &c, 
30 RADEGONDE STREET, 

yiCTOKIA £ojJARB, 



Near Zion Church, MONTMMAIj, 

Honorary Seoretary of the Royal Institution of Fine Arte, Edinburgh. 
Book Room as usual at No. 9 Scotland Strbbt. 



36 TORONTO, OTTAWA, MONTREAL. 



c/o/7/7 



Fast; ks Ms Department. 



The newest styles in Dress Goods. The best makes 
MCLCClOnCllu in Lustres. See the celebrated Unicorn 

Brand. 

& GO. , FRENCH MERINOS, CASHMERES, 

MOURNING GOODS, WINCEYS, 

&c, &c, &c. 

Toronto. 

Patterns sent on application. 



OTTAWA MILLS, 

OTTAWA, Ont, 

IE^Io-ulit db Oatmeal. 



THOMAS McKAY & CO,, 

Manufacturers of the Ottawa Mills Oatmeal. 

JOHN FAIR, 

Commissioner for taking Affidavits to be used in the 
Province of Ontario, 

181 St. James Street, 

MONTREAIj. 



A. G. McBEAN, 

Produce Commission Jflerchant, 

64, 66 & 68 FOUNDLING ST., 
MONTREAL. 



% OTTAWA AND MONTREAL. 37 

| MACLEAN, ROGER & CO., 

\ Boffut and Farliamntary Printers,. 

i Publishers of the Hansard or Official Reports 

< OF THE 

Debates of Parliament. 

< » «• ► ■ 

I Binbing anb Ruling bone to tflrber. 

I _ — 

154 Wellington Street, 

i OTTAWA. 



\ HOOD'S SO^-IPS. 




MARK. 



TWO INTERNATIONAL PRIZE MEDALS. 

Being the ONIjY HOUSE awarded a Medal by the BRITISH JUDGES at the 

Centennial Exhibition, we can with renewed confidence recommend our 

Soaps as THE BEST in the Dominion. 

Excelleticy, Detergency, Durability and Purity are its 
properties, therefore our 

FAMILY AND TOILET SOAPS ARE UNSURPASSED. 

If you want pleasure and comfort in the toilet, smooth and 
pliant skins, use constantly 
TOILETS, LAUNDRY. 

PARAGON. ERASIVE. 
SILVER (Family). 

GOLDEN (Family) 

HOOD & SON'S TOILET SOAPS. 



SUPERFINE, OATMEAL, 

TRANSPARENT, GLYCERINE. 
SHAVING STICKS. 



U a ^/ s i^to ( ^*^ : Ate» s id«iw«i/ s V^^= fl ^ a : /- -.-.r- ^/^V^' 3 ^ .^^iy^^«/W^^ s V ; '^r s ^7»aft 




ectoral Balsam 



? 



■ Is reco7nmended with confidence for the cure of 

COUGHS, BRONCHITIS, 

COLDS, WASTING OF THE FLESH, 

HOARSENESS, NIGHT SWEATS, 

ASTHMA, SPITTING OF BLOOD. 
CROUP, WHOOPING COUGH, 

INFLUENZA, &c, &c. 

Which require prompt treatment, the neglect of which is in most cases the 
cause of Consumption, Decline and Pulmonary Affections. 

When the disease has not made too much progress, it can be entirely 
cured, and for this purpose no better medicine can be used than 

HAGYARD'S PECTORAL BALSAM. 

It has been tested for the last fifteen years, and in no instance has it 
given dissatisfaction. On the contrary, thousands have been benefited 
by its use. It is a Stimulating Tonic Diaphoretic and Expectorant. 
It strikes at the root of the disease, at once acting on the Alimentary 
Canal and Bronchial Tubes, stimulating the vessels of the T ungs, excit- 
ing expectoration, and causing the Lungs to throw off the Phlegm or 
Mucus, healing the irritated parts, and creating a healthy action. The 
unprecedented and constantly increasing sale, and the high estimation in 
which it is held by those who have used it, place it, without a possibility 
of a doubt, among the leading Medicines of the day. It being com- 
posed of the best known Vegetable Tonics, Gums and Balsams that 
Medical Science has discovered, and so combined that they act har- 
moniously on the system, each one fulfilling its proper functions, Phy- 
sicians recommend it who have become acquainted with its healing 
balsamic and expectorating properties, and it has been prepared with 
the view of curing, when a cure is possible, and when impossible, to 
relieve, those suffering from Hereditary Disposition, Particular 
Formation of the Trunk, Scrofulous Tendency, Catarrh, 
Inflammation of the Lungs, Spitting of Blood, Syphilis, 
King's Evil, Small Pox, Measles, &c. To state that any 
medicine will cure all those diseases, when they become old or chronic, 
would be simply absurd, but undoubtedly the most severe cases can be 
relieved, and for this purpose no better medicine can be used than 

HAGYAR D'S PECTORAL BALSAM. 

MILBURN, BENTLEY & PEARSON, 

TOBOUTO. 



r~ 



First Quarter. 
Full Moon . . . 



OCTOBER. 



39 



ZMZOOZKTS PHASES. 
I 3rd ! 2. 7 mo. || Third Quarter. I 19th 
I nth J 4. 1 mo. || New Moon . . . | 35th 



2. 16 mo. 
5.42 eve. 



Tues 

Wed 

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WEATHER PROVER BS AKP WEATHER WISDOM. 

If in the fall of the leaves in October many of them 
wither on the boughs and hang, it betokens a frosty winter 
and much snow. 

16th Sunday after Trinity. 

But more than all the setting sun survey, 

When down the steps of heaven he drives the day ; 

For oft we find him finishing his race, 

With various colors erring on his face. 

If fiery red his glowing globe descends, 

17th Sunday after Trinity. 

High winds and furious tempests he portends ; 
But if his cheeks are swollen with livid blue, 
He bodes wet weather by his watery hue ; 
If dusky spots are varied on his brow, 
And streaked with red a troubled color show, 

18th Sunday after Trinity. 

That sullen mixture shall at once declare 

Winds, rain, and storms, and elemental war. 

But if with purple rays he brings the light, 

And a pure heaven resigns to quiet night, 

No rising winds or falling storms are nigh — Virgil. 

19th Sunday after Trinity, 

If the sun sets behind a straight skirting of cloud, be 
sure of wind from the point where the sun is setting. 



W t eather Indicated by Movements of Clouds. — High 
upper clouds crossing the sun, moon, or stars, in a direction different 
from that of the lower clouds, or the wind then felt below, foretells a 
change of wind in that direction. — Fitzroy. 

If two strata of clouds appear in hot weather to move in different 
directions, they indicate thunder ; if during dry weather, rain will 
follow. 

A squall cloud that one can see through or under is not likely to 
bring, or be accompanied by so much wind as a dark continued cloud 
extending beyond the horizon. — F'Uzroy. 

Small scattering clouds, flying high in the south-west, foreshadow 
whirlwinds. — Howard. 



[MIOOZEsT'S 
First Quarter. I 1st 1 4.57 eve. 
Full Moon j 9th I 9.40 eve. 



40 



NOVEMBER. 



PHASES. 

I Third Quarter.. I 17th I 1. 5 ev. 

I New Moon . . . | 24th | 4. 1 7mo. 



WEATHEH PROVE m AND WKATHEH WISDOM- 

A warm and open winter portends a hot and dry 
summer. — Lord Bacon. 

20th Sunday after Trinity. 

Onions, skins very thin, 
Mild winter coming in, 
Onions, skins thick and tough, 

Coming winter cold and rough. — Gardener 's Rhyme. 
An early winter, a surly winter. 

21st Sunday after Trinity. 

St. Martin's Day, nth. — If the wind is in the south- 
west at Martinmas, it keeps there till after Candlemas. 

If cranes appear early in autumn, a serene winter is 
expected. 

22nd Sunday after Trinity. 

Much crying of peacocks denotes rain. 

If dust whirls round in eddies when being blown about 
by the wind, it is a sign of rain. 

Hares take to the open country before a snow storm. 
—Scotch Proverb. 

23rd Sunday after Trinity. 

When cats sneeze, it is a sign of rain. 
If spaniels sleep more than usual, 



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l 7 


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18 


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l 9 


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2 4 


Sun 


2 5 


Mon 


26 


Tues 


2 7 


Wed 


28 


Thu 


2 9 


Fri 


3o 


Sat 



it foretells wet 



J 

i 



more 
weather. 

Bearded frost is a forerunner of snow. 

He that would have a bad day, maun gang oot in a fog 
after a frost. — Scotch Proverb. 



Cloud Indications. — When the cirrus clouds appear at lower 
elevations than usual, and with a severe character, expect a storm 
from the opposite quarter to the clouds. 

When after a clear frost long streaks of cirrus are seen with their 
ends bending towards each other as they recede from the zenith, and 
when they point to the north-east, a thaw and a south-west wind may 
be expected. 

It is asserted that the versatile cloud pointed out by Hamlet to 
Polonias as " Very like a whale," was what is scientifically known as 
the cirro stratus. 

If clouds look as if scratched by a hen (cirro stratus), 
Get ready to reef your topsails then. — Nautical Proverb. 




Trade-Make, 



MONTREAL. * 4 1 

in lih mo m pad 

is marvellous in its prompt and radical 

cure for every species of Liver and Stomach \ 

difficulties. It contains only harmless ve- < 

getable compounds, and is worn EXACTLY < 

WHERE NEEDED, over the vitals, the < 

Liver and Stomach. It removes torpidity i 

of the liver, and arouses the stomach from * 

its dormant state, arresting fermentation, j 

torpor and pain, by giving it the natural ( 

quantity of bile and gastric juice. It also f 

vitalizes the entire system with Nature's ( 

true tonic. It arrests all deteriorated and t 

poisonous fluids in the stomach, and thus ( 

prevents their entering the system by way 5 

of circulation. It absorbs from the body ) 

every particle of BLOOD POISON, whe- j 

ther bilious, malarial or medicinal, and j 

leaves the wearer in perfect health. I 

Sent by mail, free it charge, on receipt of $2. 50 for Regular Pad. Special Pads \ 

Three Dollars and a Half, used only in old complicated cases. Send money or Post I 

Office Order, or Registered Letter, and you will receive the Pad by Mail, with book and J 

full instructions. \ 

Do not take any more medicine, but follow the example of thousands \ 

all over the world, by wearing one of HOLMAN'S PADS, a sure cure L 

for Dyspepsia, Indigestion, Liver Complaint and all Bilious Disorders. \ 

This is what the Pad is doing— Read the following testimonials :— \ 

Holman Liver Pad Company, Montreal, Sept. 12th, 1877. i 

Dear Sirs,— I am happy to relate to you the benefit I have received from your & 

Pad, about one month ago. The pain I was troubled with is entirely gone, and my i 

stomach is now in a perfectly healthy condition. The Pad has given me strength and k 

removed the depressed feeling from which I was long suffering, thus making life a \ 

pleasure in place of a drag. Mv health was never better than it is at present, there- '}. 

fore, cheerfully I recommend HOLMAN'S LIVER PAD to suffering humanity, for it I 

is worth more than its weight in gold. % 

Yours respectfully, JOHN J. HANNAN, i 

303 Notre Dame Street, Montreal. % 

Holman Liver Pad Company, Burlington, Ont., July 30th, 1877. 

Dear Sirs.— With pleasure I communicate to you the benefit I have received in 
the use of your Fever and Ague Liver Pad. From the first day I put it on, the pain 
left me, and I now feel comfortable ; it also acted on my bowels Kke a charm, and I 
feel thankful to ruy Heavenly Father that my attention "was directed to it, and also to 
you. I have certainly become your missionary for your Pad and Plasters. 

Please find enclosed $3, for Pad and Plasters, and address them to Mrs. Hoggarth, 

Ingersoll, Ont. € 

Yours truly, JAMES C. BENT. 8 

Holman Liver Pad Company, Wyoming, Ont., September lOtn, 1877. $ 

Dear Sirs,— I have used your Pad for about three weeks, and feel great pleasure $ 

in informing you of its wonderful power and great benefit it has been to me, as I $ 

have been troubled with Dyspepsia for years. I wish your Pad gospel speed. h 

Yours truly, JOHN R. BENSON. <? 

HOLMAN LIVER PAD COMPANY, f 

301 Notre Dame Street, Montreal, and 119 Hollis Street, Halifax, N.S. i 

Lymans, Clare & Co., Wholesale Druggists , Agents, Montreal. | 



42 



MONTREAL AND TORONTO. 




Encourage Home Xxxci-ULStx-y 

JIYFE'S STANDARD SCALES nave taken SILVER MEDAL and FIRST 

PRIZE for accuracy, workmanship and simplicity or eouacruoaou. liuy bcales 

from $100, upwards. PlatiOrmauaCounier 

Scales at low prices for gojd \v orkmansmp* 

KA1LKOAD l&ACK, 

and Depot Scales. 
Also, 1«'ancy Brass 
Beam Count ek 
4 Scales. 

Send for Illustrat- 
ed Pr.ceLiat. 




JAMLS FYFE, 

¥ 40 College Street 
MONTREAL. 



TjWERY GENERAL STOREKEEPER 

Visiting Toronto can fill his list in every department, 

STAPLES, CARPETS, DRESS GOODS, 

HOSIERY, MANTLES, FLOWERS, 

WOOLLENS and NOTIONS, 

- At— 

JOHN MACDONALD & COMPANY. 



IRA GOULD & SONS, 

Manufacturers of the Celebrated Brands of 

■ m*.. Mills 9 ' Flour \ 

MONTREAL. 



YOUNG & McGAURAN, 

oots and gpioes, 

WHOXJSSAUS, 

28 COLLEGE STREET, 

James A. Young, 

(Late of Smardon & Young). 

Charles McGauran. 



HALIFAX, N. S. 43 

ME&GHEB & CHtSHGLM, 
Barristers, Solicitors, 

AND NOTARIES PUBLIC, 

BEDFORD K.O-A.3D, 

FEASER Sd SOTSTS, 

82 & 84 BARBINGTON STREET - - HALIFAX. 

MANUFACTURERS OF 

Grand, Square, Upright, Over- 
strung and Oblique Pianos, 

With full Metallic Frames and Supports, 

In handsome Rosewood and Walnut Cases, which. 

for material, "workmanship, and tone, cannot be 

surpassed by any in the market. 

Pianofortes, Cabinet and Church Organs, 

Tuned and Repaired. 

R~. B. MACKINTOSH, 

WHOLESALE 

SUGAR 

AND COMMISSION MERCHANT, 
253 & 255 Barrington St., Halifax, N. S. 

No Truckage or Wharfage charged. Terms Cash. 

JOHN EGAN, 

(Established 1847). 

• 33 Water St., Foot of Duke St, Halifax, N. S. 
Fowling Pieces, Revolvers, Rifles, Breech Loaders, <fcc, 

GUNS AND RIFLES MADE AND REPAIRED. 
Best Qualities Gunpowder. 





s -^~V^^ s is> a ^V ?c- .» s V s V r,? i 



44 MONTREAL. 

196 ]STotre Dame Street, 

General Importer ef French Beeis. 

SEEDS AND PLANTS. 

Imported Seeds of Rare Plants, Ornamental Herbs, Flower Seeds, 
Vegetable Seeds, and Useful Plants ; Ornamental and other Plants for 
planting in Gardens and Hot Houses. 



LITHOGRAPHIC CHROMOS. 

Business Chromos of all kinds, Cards, Show Cards on Cardboard, 
and Enameled Metal, Labels, &c., suitable for all kinds of business. 
Sketches executed by the best Parisian Artists. 



GENUINE FRENCH PATENT MEDICINES 
AND PERFUMES 

of all kinds sold under seal and guarantee of the proprietor, 



COLLINS' SURGICAL INSTRUMENTS, SPEC- 
TACLES, OPERA GLASSES, LENSES, 
COMPASSES, &c. 

FRENCH TIN PLATE FROM 1-156 Inch THICK- 
NESS, FOR TIN BOXES. 

PERFORATED METAL SHEETS FOR ALL PURPOSES, 
ENGINEERING SIEVES, &c. 

BLACKING, SHOE FINDINGS, and all class 
of French Goods. 

AGENT FOR THE PROVINCE OF ONTARIO : 

~^FT . BB3TD03ST, 
KING STREET E A ST, TORONTO. 



DECEMBER. 



45 



IMZOOTnT'S IE>:E3:_A.iS:ES- 



First Quarter.. 

Full Moon 

Third Quarter . 



1st 

9th 

16th 



11.44 eve - 

2.56 eve. 

10. 10 eve. 



New Moon 



First Quarter., 



23rd j 4.31 eve. 
31st j 9. 4 mo. 



1 
2 
3 
4 

5 
6 

7 
8 

9 
10 
11 

12 
13 
14 
15 
16 

17 
1 

19 

20 
21 

22 
23 
24 
25 
26 
27 
28 
29 
30 
3i 



Sun 

Mon 

Tues 

Wed 

Thu 

Fri 

Sat 

Sun 

Mon 

Tues 

Wed 

Thu 

Fri 

Sat 

Sun 

Mon 

Tues 

Wed 

Thu 

Fri 

Sat 

Sun 

Mon 

Tues 

Wed 

Thu 

Fri 

Sat 

Sun 

Mon 

Tues 



WEATHEH PRQVEBS S AND WEATHER VWOOM. 
Advent Sunday. 

Thunder in December presages fine weather. 
If the sun shines through the apple tree on Christmas 
day, there will be an abundant crop the following year. 
A green Christmas makes a fat churchyard. 

2nd Sunday in Advent, 

If Christmas day on Thursday be, 
A windy weather ye shall see ; 
Windy weather in each week, 
And hard tempests strong and thick ; 
The summer shall be good and dry, 

3rd Sunday in Advent. 

Corn and beasts shall multiply ; 

The year is good for lands to till, 

Kings and princes shall die by skill. 
Look at the weathercock on St. Thomas' day, 
(December 21st) at twelve o'clock, and see which way the 
wind is, for there it will stick for the next quarter. 
4th Sunday in Advent. 

A windy Christmas and a calm Candlemas are signs of 
a good year. 

A warm Christmas, a cold Easter, 

A green Christmas, a white Easter. — German Proverb. 

1st Sunday after Christmas. 

If it rain much during the twelve days after Christmas, 
it will be a wet year. 



Cloud Indications. — And another storm brewing ; I hear it 
sing i' the wind, yond same black cloud, yond huge one, looks like a 
foul bumbard that would shed his liquor * * yond' same cloud 
cannot chuse but fall by pailfuls. — Shakespeare, Tempest 

In summer or harvest, when the wind has been south for two or 
three days, and it grows very hot, and you see clouds rise with great 
white tops like towers, as if one were upon the top of another (cumu- 
lus), and joined together' with black on the wether side, there will be 
thunder and rain suddenly. If two such clouds arise, one on either 
hand, it is time to make haste to shelter.- Shepherd of Banbury 




HALIFAX, N. S. 




J. R. JENNETT & CO., 

Importers of and Wholesale and Retail Dealers In 






Chx, Class, Mews, Mrs-Ms, Cutlery, k, 

Acadia Corner, 78 Upper Water Street, 

1 and 3 Bells Lane, HALIFAX, N.S. 

JOSEPH CARMAN, 

General Commission Merchant, 

WHOLESALE DEALER IN 

| Flour an& other Proouce, Prouisicms, &c., &c. 
i 28 BEDFORD ROW, Halifax, N. S. 

\ Goods Shipped Free of Cartage or Wharfage. 

Consignments of Produce and Provisions solicited. 

7?*f,ro„r,c A MONTREAL. GALT, Ont. TORONTO. 
j^ejerences . j Baird & Kinnear. R. Blain. D. Cowan & Co. 

ADAM McKAY, 

Manufacturer of Steam Engines, Boilers and Mill Machinery. % 

Importer and Dealer in all kinds of Machinery and h 

Machinery Supplies, Railway, Colliery and jjj 

Contractors* Supplies, $ 

Metal Merchant and Manufacturers' Agent, 
Office and Sample Booms : 30 SAOKVILLE ST., HALIFAX. { 

Manufactory : DARTMOUTH, N. S. 



Y E \ 

BOSTON BAKED BEANS, I 

In 3lb Cans, prepared in y e fashion of y e Olden Time in y e 

Ancient City of Boston, 

By W. K. LEWIS & BROTHERS. 

Ask y° Grocer for them. 

Trade supplied by K. J. DOLPHIN, HALIFAX, N. S. 




HALIFAX, N. S. 



G. S. YATES & Co.. 

WHOLESALE 

Shoe Manufacturers, 

432 Upper Water St., 

HALIFAX, N. S. 
TRY OUR PRICES. 



PuMi^er^, 8ook£eller% Stationer^, 

AND 

^lank Book Manufacturers, 

HALIFAX, N. S. 

Bronze Medal Awarded for Geographical Apparatus, Paris 

Exposition , 1867. 
First Prize Awarded at Nova Scotia Exhibition, 1868, for 
Educational Books and Apparatus, Superiority of Blank 
Books, and Superiority of Printing and Binding. 

^TJJBI^ISMEIIS OF 

Calkin's General Geography of the World, 

CALKIN'S INTRODUCTORY GEOGRAPHY. 

The New Dominion Monthly 

IS A MAGAZINE OF 

One Hundred and Twenty-Eight Pages 

i (ILLUSTRATED). 
Price, $2.00 a year, including postage. 
JOHN DOUGALL & SON, Publishers, Montreal. 



4^ HALIFAX, N. S. 

&U9HERI#A1I1} & EMTIIf, 

CONVEYANCERS, 



54 GRANVILLE ST., 

Opposite Clarke *s Auction Rooms, HalifaXi j^J"» S« 

W. D. SUTHERLAND. JOHN ERVIN, JR. 



02 

•i-H 

S3 

o 

a 

S3 

Q> 

C* 



HARDIT^ARE, 



A.. M. BELL, 

Head of Bennett's Wharf, 
HALIFAX, N.S. 



FISHING- SUPPLIES. 



Pi 

CD 

P 

CD 
P 

c* 

car* 
o 
»-« 

TO 



B. A.. SMITH, 

J J to 37 George Street, Halifax, JV. S., 

WHOLESALE IMPORTER OF 

DRY aOODS 

LARGE STOCK TO CHOOSE FROM. 

Several JOB LOTS OF GOODS now showing, at very low prices, 

in each department. 

A. STEPHEN & SON, 

MANUFACTURERS AND DEALERS IN 

EVER Y D ESC RIP TI ON OF 

FUPHNTITURB 

Parlor and Chamber Suites, Chairs, Mattresses, Bedding, 
Pails, Brooms, Blinds, Children s Carriages, &c., 

lOl & 103 BARRINGTON ST., 



. " i.-'^j/^S/^f^i 



MEMORANDA. 49 






5° 



MEMORANDA. 



MEMORANDA. 51 



J 



j 52 MEMORANDA. 



MEMORANDA. 53 t 



t . ....... ... ... ................ 

I 54 MEMORANDA. 



MEMORANDA. 55 






; 



MEMORANDA. 



r 



MEMORANDA. 57 



MEMORANDA. 



I 6o MEMORANDA. 



I I 



MEMORANDA. 61 t 

— t 



62 



MEMORANDA. 



U 



I 64 MEMORANDA. 



THE YEAR 1877 REVIEWED. 



JANUARY IN CANADA. 

The first of January, 1877, found us well " snowed in," not only 
throughout the greater part of Canada, but also through the Northern 
United States, and as far south as Washington, D. C. The last week 
of the year 1876 was especially blustry, and the telegraphic reports of 
the weather from all quarters proclaimed "trains blockaded " and 
heavy drifts and snow falls. Altogether in December (1876) snow 
fell on 19 days, making a total snow fall of 23.6 inches, considerably 
more than the average for this month ; while the rainfall registered . 
Thus, December of 1876 was a striking contrast to the December of 
1875, when an unusual amount of rain fell, and but little snow. 

MONTREAL RECORD. 

In January, 1877, there were 14 clear brilliant days in Montreal, 
nine on which snow fell, three with rain or sleet, ten which might 
correctly be called cold days, and eight on which the weather was 
either extremely mild or thawing. The following is the daily record : 

1. Bright, brilliant, mild, plenty of snow ; great contrast to January* 

1876. Country roads blocked up. Max. temp. 15 9' ; min. 4°. 

2. Overcast, mild. Max. temp. 14 $' ; min. 6° 3'. 

3. Brilliant, rather cold. 5 below zero during night. 

4. Thermometer during night 5 below zero. Bright and clear. 

5. Steady about zero. Brilliant weather. 

6. Raw and overcast, and milder everywhere. 

7. Heavy snow fall all day ; evening mild. 

8. Bright, mild day ; great deal of snow everywhere. Sleighing as 

far south as Washington, D. C. 

9. Thermometer during night 1 5 ° below zero. Bright cold day; 

thermometer steady at io° below zero. 

10. Cold day. Mild evening with sleet. 

1 1 . Very mild ; wet snow in evening ; hardly freezing. 

12. Coldest night yet. 21 below zero. Very sudden and great 

descent of thermometer since yesterday. 

13. Brilliant, cold — 20 below zero. 

14. Brilliant day. Third day of extreme cold. 

15. Overcast ; milder ; spittings of snow ; snowstorms to westward ; 
snowed all night. 

16. Great snow drifts everywhere, as far west as Chicago. Milder. 

1 7. Bright, moderate day. Reports of blockades of snow from all parts. 

18. Mild, overcast day. 

19. do do rain in evening. 

20. Wet night. Complete break up. 

21. Overcast and moderate. 

22. " " 

23. Spring-like weather. Brilliant. 



66 THE YEAR REVIEWED — JANUARY, 1877. 

24. Overcast and rather cold. 

25. Brilliant and cold ; io° below zero. 

26. Mild, overcast day \ snowed heavily evening and night. 

27. Snowing steadily during forenoon. 

28. Mild day ; wet snow during night* 

29. Very mild. 

30. General thaw and break up. Snow fast disappearing. 

31. Soft hazy morning ; thaw continues. Max. temp. 30 ; min. 25 5*. 

This record shows altogether a severe month. The greatest descent 
of the thermometer occurred between the eleventh and twelfth days, 
when the minimum readings, from 14 above, fell to 21 below zero 
within a very few hours. 

In taking a general view of the month in Canada, we will 
dwell in no particular locality, but from Winnipeg to Halifax will 
gather and consolidate the general testimony which pronounces 
January, 1877, the severest in many years. 

A candid correspondent in Tdronto confesses on the 28th of 
December that "Vennor's last prediction is being fulfilled. A drift- 
ing snow-storm is raging here to-day. It has caused this morning's 
train from the east to be five hours late. " On the night of the 29th of 
December, the snow cloud broke over Montreal, rendering pedestrian- 
ism very difficult, and on the same night Ottawa was clad in a snowy 
mantle nearly two feet in thickness. The hand which shed the snow- 
flakes there did not withhold from other towns, but on December 30th, 
from Belleville, Toronto and Hamilton, arose a wail at the prodigality 
which sent snows sufficient to block up roads and delay trains. Again 
from Belleville, on January 1st, we hear that "the roads are badly 
drifted by last night's storm, but the stages were able to get through 
after much difficulty," and from Quebec, on the same date, that "a big 
snow storm set in during last night, and lasted with great violence 
until noon to-day. A very large amount of snow has fallen. The 
city streets are impassable, and communication with the country is cut 
off, consequently the New Year's markets to-day were completely 
bare. No mails have arrived from the west, and it is unknown when 
they will get in." A despatch from Halifax on the 2nd announced 
that "a snow storm prevailed all day," and two days later we heard 
that " snow-drifts still interfere with railway traffic." It was published 
in Montreal on the 6th that "the weather during the past few days 
has played sad havoc with water pipes in exposed situations, especially 
in dwellings where the foundation walls are supplied with ventilating 
chinks. The turbine wheel at the Water Works is totally incapaci- 
tated, being clogged up with ice until its revolutions have ceased." 
On the 8th we heard from Quebec that "the heaviest snow-storm of 
the season set in yesterday morning, and continued until the evening. 
About twelve inches of snow fell, and this is badly drifted. All roads 
blocked to-day." On the 9th, over one hundred men and about 70 
horses and sleighs were at work in Montreal, in clearing the streets 
from the snowy encumbrances. Many of the narrow streets were 
almost impassable. From Ottawa and Kingston, despatches of the 
nth announced that heavy snow-storms had set in, and the following 



i 



THE YEAR REVIEWED — JANUARY, 1877. 




day the thermometer fell to 12° below zero at Toronto, and at 
Rockliffe, on the Ottawa, registered 34 below zero. At London it 
snowed all day on the 12th, and a Kingston despatch of the same date 
says : "Last night there was a blinding snow drift with wind from the { 
north-east. This morning it was very cold, the thermometer being t 
down as low as 20 degrees below zero. ' At Quebec the thermometer t 
at the Cape on the same day stood 30 degrees below zero, and a Halifax I 
despatch says, "snow is deposited six feet deep in the woods, and t 
lumbering operations are being vigorously prosecuted. Another t 
cold spell has set in." From Manitoba it was learned that "the j 
thermometer on the nth, at Winnipeg, stood 40 degrees below zero ; I 
on the 10th, at Swan River, 47 degs., and at Battleford, 52 degs. below \ 
zero." On the 13th the thermometer showed 16 degrees below zero at t 
Guelph. A Toronto dispatch of the 14th says " Grand Trunk trains f 
east and west have failed to arrive here, on account of the heavy I 
drifts on the line ;" in fact in all directions, great inconvenience ♦ 
was experienced during this week by railway companies. The t 
train from New York on the 14th occupied 48 hours in the trip to t 
Montreal. A heavy snow-storm visited Quebec on the 14th, and trav- 
elling westward, its precursor, a heavy gale, swept over Montreal on 
the 15th, bringing with it the snow-storm in the evening. The herald 
of the storm was not long reaching Toronto, and on the 1 6th the train 
from Belleville was detained for 25 hours near Bowmanville, some of 
the passengers finding it difficult to obtain food. In one instance three 
engines were coupled to a train, but this proved ineffectual against the 
huge snow banks. Even St. Catharines and London felt the effects of 
this storm, as a despatch from St. Catharines of the 16th says : "Traf- 
fic on the Welland Railroad was almost suspended yesterday owing to 
the snow blockade. * * * The deep cutting between this city and 
the port was entirely blocked up, and no train was able to get through 
until about 1 1 o'clock this morning, when they succeeded in forcing 
their way through with two engines." On the 15th a despatch from 
Halifax stated that the mercury stood 10 degrees below zero, the se- 
verest cold felt up to that date. On the same day twelve inches of 
snow fell at Guelph, which very quickly drifted, and at St. John, N.B., 
there was a heavy storm, which delayed all railway operations. From 
Ottawa, on the 17th, it was despatched that "the exceptionally heavy 
storm of last night had the effect of temporarily checking traffic along 
the line of the Grand Trunk. The Montreal delegation to the Domin- 
ion Board of Trade reached the capital at noon, but the Toronto and 
western members were snowed up at Scarboro, where, from all that 
has been learned, they remain." From Kingston, of the same date we 
learned that " the roads in this vicinity are completely blocked with 
snow. The eastern and western mails were very late ; no American 
mails." At Halifax snow fell on the same date, blocking up the country 
roads. On the 1 8th a despatch from Winnipeg stated that "the ther- 
mometer registered 44 degrees below zero at Winnipeg, at Pembina 
47, and at Fort Pelly 52 degrees below zero." On the 23rd, intelli- 
gence from St. John, N. B., slated that "the thermometer was report- 
ed as low as 39 and 40 degreesTBelow zero at Andover and other parts 
of Victoria County. " 



■•■♦'♦■♦■•■♦■»■ 



t uJ THE YEAR REVIEWED — JANUARY, 1877. 

; _ . 

t Perhaps the most singular event in the weather of the month was 

I the occurrence of a thunderstorm on the 20th, an account of which was 
j received from Quebec on the 24th, as follows: " A heavy thunder- 
t storm visited the parishes between Riviere du Loup and Rimouski on 
t Saturday night. At Cacouna the Roman Catholic church steeple was 
I struck by lightning and set on fire, but the flames were extinguished 
I before much damage was done." On the 26th the thermometer regis- 
t tered 1 2 degrees below zero at Halifax. Two days later a heavy snow- 
storm occurred at Ottawa, and on the 30th a despatch from Quebec 
says : "A terrific snow-storm set in yesterday, which continued during 
the night. The drift is deep, and some of the country roads are impas- 
sable.' ' 

With such a record as the foregoing, no honest student of the 
weather can do otherwise than admit that the January of 1877 was un- 
usually severe and wintry-like ; yet anti-Vennorites, hugging the mild 
and exceptional February which followed it, ignored three repeated 
snow-falls and severe snaps, and towards spring talked loudly of the 
" little snow " and " little cold " which had visited us during the win- 
ter months. The facts of the case, however, are that not for fifty years 
has there been a January during which the cold and snow extended so 
far east, west and south as during that of 1877. The winter thus hav- 
ing pretty well spent itself during January, February came in smiling 
and pleasant, and brought with it the thaw expected some days before. 



JANUARY IN THE UNITED STATES. 

Correspondence from a very wide area, together with information 
gleaned from newspapers and various other sources, will serve to re- 
view the general character of the month throughout the United States. 
We hear from Boston of December in Massachusetts that " the snow 
lay from two and a half to three feet on the level ; ice was 16 inches 
thick. Snowy owls abounded in such numbers that a taxidermist had 
60 on hand at one time to stuff.' ' 

The old year did not expire without a struggle, but from east and 
west we hear of frost and storm. On the 28th of December a snow- 
storm destroyed nine houses near Alta, and buried the occupants, the 
news of the catastrophe being dispatched from Salt Lake four days 
later. 

The Washington correspondent to the Montreal Gazette writes on 
January 3rd that " the innocent little New Year was ushered into this 
tempestuous world on the wings of a regular northeast snow-storm, 
which kept increasing during the whole day, till at nightfall the streets 
were nearly deserted. The snow and wind had the out-of-door city to 
themselves, and right merrily did they dance and whirl and sing, hold- 
ing grand New Year's carnival ; or was it a wake at the funeral of the 
poor old careworn century just departed that they were celebrating so 
boisterously ? — and was this large white mantle, encircling everything 
around, his winding sheet." Again, on the 6th we hear from Wash- 
ington that the continued cold weather, followed on New Years Day 



THE YEAR REVIEWED— FEBRUARY, 1877. 69 

by the most severe snow-storm experienced within ten years, had driven 
game south, and on January 8th there appeared in the Witness the 
startling announcement that the estimated loss to New York city by 
the great snow-storm was $1,000,000. Even in Texas the snow lay 
several inches deep for some consecutive days during the month of De- 
cember, and in Tampa snow fell on New Years Day, a phenomenon 
never witnessed before. The Florida New Yorker, referring to the 
weather experienced in Florida during the early part of January, 1877, 
says: "It has been a matter of nearly a month's anxious enquiry to 
learn through the Florida papers, as well as diligent private corres- 
pondence, the exact amount of injury sustained by this unprecedented 
spell of weather. Beyond the killing of very young trees in certain 
sections of the State, partial injury to fruit, and the shedding of the 
foliage, no very serious loss has been sustained. To be able to make 
this report would be worth thousands to Florida. It may be fifty years 
before such an extraordinary weather report shall be again registered." 
Prof. Brown Goode, of the Smithsonian Institute, writes from Ber- 
muda that the same cold weather had been felt there which the north- 
erners had experienced, but that the thermometer had at no time regis- 
tered lower than 54 degrees above zero. The Witness of January 8th 
says : " Snow in plenty has been falling in the United States, as well 
as in Canada, fulfilling Mr. Vennor's predictions that there would be a 
great deal of it this month. Different cities give it different receptions. 
Washington is rejoiced, and turns out in sleighs filled with masquer- 
aders, but commercial New York complains of the snow blockade and 
the interruption of business, while Buffalo, deeply interested in trans- 
portation, sends a message about delayed trains." 

From Connersville, Indiana, on the loth, it was stated that for 
three weeks heavy snows and extremely cold weather had been the 
order of the day, and on the same date a despatch from Washington 
says : " The heavy fall of snow on New Years day has given 
Washingtonians such a taste of real winter and its attendant comforts 
and discomforts as they have not experienced for the last fifty years. 
The rain on the 6th brought the festive part to a close, and was 
celebrated by a sleighing carnival on Pennsylvania Avenue." On the 
13th, Forest and Stream reported that the weather had been very severe 
in the Adirondacks, in fact the hardest winter known in that latitude 
for years, the snow being deep and the cold intense. 

Extracts might be multiplied to fill page after page, but a 
sufficiently clear idea of January weather will be formed from the 
foregoing. 



FEBRUARY. 

The month of February, 1877, will be a memorable one for its 
exceeding mildness and the small amount of moisture which fell from 
the clouds, either in the shape of rain or snow. The soft weather 
which set in after the 18th of January continued almost without inter- 
ruption up to the 1 2th of this month, when for a brief space everything 

*— »-»-♦-«■»■ »•»•»•♦■»■».♦.».».♦.♦.».«.». ♦.».+.».♦ .».,»..♦.♦-..«.. ♦..^.^..^.^ ♦..»..■»..» . +.».+.« 



7° THE YEAR REVIEWED — FEBRUARY, 1 877. 

was firmly frozen again. After the 21st balmy, spring-like weather set 
in, the snow rapidly disappeared, and waggons and carriages appeared 
in the streets. The last of the month was bright and balmy. There 
were 15 brilliant days at Montreal this month out of the 28, and only 
some three or four that were at all cold. Snow fell on six and rain on 
four days. The minimum temperature of the three coldest days in the 
month at Montreal was : 13th, 2° 2' ; 14th, 5 2' ; 19th, 5 6'. Dur- 
ing eight days the lowest reading of the thermometer fluctuated about 
the freezing point only, while in two days it was above. 

On the 1 2th of the month a despatch from Toronto, concerning 
the weather, states that " Vennor seems to have come out right at last, 
if he is allowed a week or ten days' time. Old Boreas came down to- 
day good and strong, and everything is freezing up. Ulsters were very 
conspicuous in the streets this afternoon, the breeze from the north 
being very inviting." A despatch from St. John, N.B., to the Mont- 
real Herald, dated the 15th, confirms the reports of heavy snows, de- 
claring that "trains on all parts of the Western Extension and local 
railways have been, and are still, greatly delayed by yesterday's storm ; 
on the Western road snow ploughs have gone through drifts eight feet 
deep." On the same date it was learned from Ormstown, Q., that " the 
mild, soft weather of the past few weeks was checked by a snow flurry 
on Monday evening, since which time the weather has been fair and 
frosty. Further east considerable snow has apparently fallen, in many 
places blocking up the roads. There are at present meteorological in- 
dications of a snow-storm before long — very likely between now and 
the 20th inst." The Montreal Witness of the 19th, referring to the 
extensive snows in February, says : "Two letters received on Saturday, 
one from Rochester and another from twenty miles west of this place, 
speak of unusual quantities of snow. The tops of the fences are covered 
along many miles of road, and there are drifts the like of which have 
not been seen for many years. On the 1 3th there was also a heavy 
blockade of snow at St. John, N.B. So far we have escaped these 
snow-falls, and have enjoyed the ' brilliant ' weather anticipated by 
Mr. Vennor, whilst the other parts of the country just referred to ha\e 
come in almost to date for his snow-storms." From Douglastown, 
Gaspe, it was despatched on the 24th : "There have been heavy snow- 
falls here since the 1 7th of the month, and the snow is from seven to 
eight feet deep in many places. Travel was completely stopped for 
some days, and has been until recently much impeded. We nave not 
i had so much snow here during February for years." 
t Among a popular school of cynics there has been a disposition to 

t cavil at the sometimes imperfect realization of Vennor's probabilities, 
t but even in this month, which was characterized by such marked pe- 
l culiarities, the general tenor of his predictions was proved to be correct. 

i 

i RECORD AT MONTREAL. 

j Min. Temp. 

t I. Thaw continues ; slush; overcast; rain in evening ... . 27 ° o 

I 2. Overcast ; dull ; slushy 33 ° 8' 

i 3. Thaw continues ; slight snow 3 1 ° 8' 

4 4. Mild ; alternate cloud and sunshine 24 ° 5' 



THE YEAR REVIEWED — MARCH, 1877. 7 I j 

5. Hard frost ; thaw towards evening 20 ° 4' t 

6. Thawing ; great slush j 

7. Thaw continues ; light snow ; wind in evening 28 o' ♦ 

8. Brilliant day ; thawing only in sun ; cold night 13 l' 

9. Brilliant frosty day, but sun powerful 13 5' \ 

10. Overcast all day 13 ° 7' + 

1 1 . Brilliant day ; colder '. 18 ° 2! \ 

12. Dull ; rain and sleet ; flurries of snow ; snow fall all night. 

13. Brilliant and cold; snow-storms at points west 2° 2! t 

14. Brilliant cold day 5 ° 2^ - 

15. Bright and thawing 14 ° 6' + 

16. Mild ; snowing ; rain ; cloudy 28 ° 9' } 

17. Brilliant and cold 12 ° f t 

18. Brilliant cold morning ; cutting wind ; snow-storm north $ 

of Toronto 1 1 ° 3' \ 

19. Brilliant cold day 5 ° 6' ♦ 

20. Brilliant and cold ; snow in afternoon 1 7 ° o' 

21. Brilliant, balmy weather 27 ° o' t 

22. Brilliant, spring-like weather ; carts and carriages out . . 28 ° f I 

23. " M snow nearly all gone ... . 25 ° j \ 

24. Cloudy, raw morning ; rain and sleet in evening ; snow 

at night 29 ° 6' 

25. Mild ; light snow in the morning 30 ° o' 

26. Cloudy day ; gales in New York and Long Island .... 29 ° o' 

27. Brilliant day ; fairly cold ; sleighing wretched 18 ° 2' 

28. Brilliant, balmy, spring-like day 1 3 ° o' 



MARCH. 

It may be well in reviewing the weather of this month to glance 
at several of its prominent features previous to a minute retrospect from 
different localities. About the 8th and 9th heavy gales swept over 
Canada and the United States. St. Patrick's day was cold, with snow j 
in Halifax and sleet in Washington, D.C., and the month ended, at j 
most places, quietly, with early signs of spring, and the opening of 
navigation as predicted. The gales throughout the United States were 
furious, and telegraphic despatches from various places report very 
serious damage. From Boston, on the 10th, it was telegraphed that 
"the gale was the severest in this vicinity for years; the velocity of 
the wind at 10.30 a.m. to-day was 72 miles an hour. Much damage 
to buildings is reported." The wind had not shown such velocity since 
the establishment of a signal station there. From New York, of the 
same date, a despatch says : " The roof of the German Catholic church, 
125th street, was blown off last night. Nothing has been heard of the 
steamship • Amerique ;' the wires are down, and there is too heavy 
a sea for the Long Branch boat. A house was blown down at Eliza- 
beth, and the lower part of that city was damaged by the high tide. 
In Brooklyn a large four story frame building belonging to the Chemi- 



.-♦*.♦.■•-«-*♦.*♦•►* 



72 THE YEAR REVIEWED— MARCH, 1877. 



cal Works was demolished. " Another despatch of the 10th, from 
Taunton, says : \ l The gale here was very severe, blowing down chim- 
neys, trees, signs and fences. The greater part of the roofing of the 
extension of Leonard block, built for a theatre, was lifted by the wind, 
carried a long distance, like a huge balloon in the air, over a block of 
buildings, and dumped in the main street, carrying away a lamp post 
and frightening the occupants of stores." 

The snow and cold of the month are telegraphed from all sources. 
On the 2nd a dispatch from Quebec said: " A big snow-storm set 
in from the east this afternoon, and still prevails with considerable 
fury," and on the 8th another storm visited Quebec, and a great quan- 
tity of snow fell. On the same date, from St. Louis, a despatch reads : 
"The most violent snow-storm of the winter prevailed hereto-day; 
travel is much impeded. The storm originated in Colorado, and has 
extended over Kansas, Indian Territory, part of Arkansas and Mis- 
souri, and is now travelling eastwardly and north-eastwardly." A 
snow-storm set in at Montreal on the 9th, and on the 12th a punster 
writes from Cartwright that ' ' The weather has a very Vennor-able ap- 
pearance just now. Good sleighing, for which those having ties and 
wood to' get to the front are truly thankful." On the 13th a despatch 
from Salt Lake City says " Snow has been falling in the mountains 
here for twelve days," and the next day an Ottawa despatch said 
"plenty of snow in the bush is reported from up the river, and the 
drawing of timber is progressing favorably. " Another despatch of the 
same date from Sarnia says that ' ' the street railway has been blockad- 
ed since the big snow-storm . A force was set to work on Saturday to 
clean it off, but the snow-storms of Saturday and Monday neutralized 
their labors. The track was cleared again yesterday, and travel was 
resumed last evening." Another correspondent, of the same place, 
writes on the 14th : " Vennor wasn't very far wrong about that three 
feet of snow in March, was he ? If it was a guess it was a very lucky 
one, and has done much to re-establish his reputation, somewhat dam- 
aged by his failure to bring on those February storms according to 
programme ;" and the Sarnia Canadian of the same date says : u Peo- 
ple who grumbled because February was unseasonably fine have had 
no reason to complain of March on that score. Last Thursday ushered 
in a real old fashioned snow-storm, accompanied by a gale of unusual 
violence, and next morning found the snow some twelve inches deep on 
the level. Sunday brought on another snow-storm, and Monday still 
another of more than common violence, though, fortunately, not ac- 
companied by cold weather." On the 16th a despatch from Peterboro 
said : " Although we have not as yet got the quantity of snow pre- 
dicted by Mr. Vennor, yet sufficient has come to give us sleighing 
once more, and advantage is being taken of it by the farmers in partic- 
ular in completing their contracts for delivery of wood, grain, etc." 

On the 19th, trains east and west were delayed by blockades near 
St. John, N.B., and on the 20th news from Stratford reported a heavy 
fall of snow, accompanied by thunder and lightning, and the same day 
a heavy snow-storm raged at Chicago, impeding travel greatly. "Wed- 
nesday morning, the 21st, saw a small army of villagers, in Elora, Ont., 



U. 



clearing away from their approaches the heavy fall of snow of the pre- 
vious evening." The despatch continues: "We haven't quite the 
three feet yet, but rapid strides are being made in that direction." The 
same day a message from Halifax says "it has been raining here for 
forty-eight hours." A St. Louis despatch of the 24th states, "the se- 
verest snow-storm of the season occurred yesterday," and from Toronto 
on the 30th it was telegraphed : "The snow blockade still continues 
on the Toronto and Nipissing RR., and no trains left here to-day." 

The early signs of spring and opening of navigation were apparent 
in most places, as a few extracts will show. A Toronto despatch of 
the 9th affirms : " The ice disappeared from the bay at Toronto on the 
morning of Saturday last, and soon'after daylight a vessel was under 
sail, and placed in position to receive a cargo of peas ;" but on the 
13th "the bay was covered with a coating of ice an inch thick." From 
Albany, on the 27th, a message arrived : " The ice barrier below the 
city having disappeared, the river is now open to New York. A steam- 
boat reached the city to-day from Coeymans." The Montreal Witness 
of the 27th says : " Wild geese are again making their appearance, 
going west, which some people look upon as an indication of an early 
spring. The ice-bridge opposite the city is becoming flooded with wa- 
ter, owing to the rain of last night and to-day, which is likely to bring 
crossing by sleighs to a close earlier than was expected. Very little 
snow is to be seen in the country now, and the roads are almost bare." 
By Toronto despatch of the same date we leani that " The ice went out 
of ihe bay yesterday with a rush ; several ice-boats which were flitting to 
and fro, notwithstanding that it was Sunday, were suddenly immersed in 
water, and considerable difficulty was experienced in landing them and 
their occupants." A day later intelligence from Halifax says : " The 
wet weather continues. Nearly all the harbors on the eastern coast 
and in Cape Breton are now open." 

MONTREAL RECORD. 

1. Brilliant day ; aurora visible at night. 

2. Overcast and fairly cold ; snow, sleet, rain and wind — March 

bluster ; snow-storm at Ottawa and Quebec ; thunder-storm 
at Hamilton. 

3. Windy and overcast. [clear. 

4. Snowed during night ; light rain ; colder towards afternoon, and 

5. Bright, cold morning ; snow in the afternoon ; mean temp. 20 . 

6. Bright, cold morning ; mean temperature 14 . 

7. Six inches of snow last night ; bright, cold, drifty morning ; more 

like winter again ; cold, windy night ; mean temperature 20 . 

8. Snowing and drifting all day ; great snow-storm at Three Rivers ; 

rain at night ; mean temperature 1 2° 9'. 

9. Rain and great slush in the morning ; at noon hurricane of wind. 

10. Cold, bright day. 

11. Raw and cold ; fitful sunshine ; snow in evening. 

12. Bright and cloudy day ; mild. 

13. Bright, cold morning; thermometer at io°. 

14. Bright, cold morning; overcast at noon ; snow at 6 p.m. 



U-^. 



$ 74 THE YEAR REVIEWED— APRIL, 1877. 



t 15. Five or six inches snow fell during night ; therm, at 9 p.m. 15 . 
I 16. Bright morning ; cloudy afternoon, with light snow. 
J 17. St, Patrick's Lay. Brilliant, cold day; 4 below zero during 
night; 18 below reported at Fort Garry; snow at Halifax 
J all day ; snow and sleet at Washington, D.C. 

* iS. Very cold last night ; cutting N.E. wind ; thermometer 7 below 

zero during the night ; snow-storm at St. Johns, N.B. ; mean 
t temperature 5 . 

t 19. Brilliant day ; milder. 
I 20. Brilliant morning, with cold wind. 
4 21, Snowing hard at Montreal, Stratford and Chicago. 

♦ 22. Bright, mild, spring-like day ; great slush, 
f 23. Overcast day, with falling barometer. 

24. Overcast ; spring-like ; raining forty-eight hours at Halifax. 

25. Overcast day ; raw northerly wind ; rain in evening. 

26. Overcast and mild ; great snow-storm at St. Louis ; rain at 
Montreal at 6 p.m. ; navigation opening at Toronto; early 
spring certain. 

27. Rain all last night and this morning ; raining yesterday at To- 
ronto, Guelph, Stratford, Belleville, Kingston, Brockville, 
and many other points west ; navigation open at Toronto 
Bay, Albany, etc., early as predicted ; snow nearly all gone ; 
river ice still firm at Montreal ; robins seen. 

28. Rain all night and this morning ; heavy east gale and rain-storm 
at Quebec and Halifax ; great rise in riveis ; ice at Montreal 
flooded ; few crossing ; rained all day. 

29. Snowing in forenoon ; ice giving way at Quebec ; rains reported 
everywhere ; snowing at Belleville, Kingston, Brockville and 
Cornwall yesterday ; snowing heavily at 9 p.m. at Montreal. 

30. Good Friday. Bright day ; sun warm and spring-like ; very lit- 
tle snow or ice left. 

31. Brilliant, summer-like day ; March ends lamb-like as predicted ; 
temperature — maximum, 46 °, minimum, 30 ° 6'. 



APRIL. 

The months of the year 1877 seem to have been somewhat mis- 
arranged, or rather to have interchanged characteristics so frequently as 
to have almost destroyed their identity. April wielded the genial influ- 
ences of May, and developed vegetation to an unusual degree, while 
the clear, dry weather which prevailed robbed Spring of the dampness 
which usually precedes Nature's resurrection. As with previous months, 
we will introduce a few extracts from telegraphic reports, showing the 
general character of the weather. On the 2nd a despatch from Winni- 
peg reads : " Several days of mild weather caused the roads to break 
up ; ice on the rivers is getting rotten. Hawks were seen two weeks 
earlier than migratory birds usually appear." Intelligence of heavy 
floods, caused by the breaking up of the rivers, was received on the 
I 4th from St. John, N.B., reporting serious loss of life at Gaspareaux, 



THE YEAR REVIEWED— APRIL, 1877. 75 

where several mill dams were swept away. Showing the early opening 
of navigation, a telegram from Kingston on the 5th said : "This after- 
noon the steamer will make a start for the Island and Cape Vincent." 
On the 6th the bridge opposite Montreal "caved in near both shores, 
and a general shove took place," and a despatch from Halifax on the 
9th says, " Pug wash harbor is open and no ice is visible." 

On the 23rd, a despatch from Winnipeg says "the weather is 
warm. * * Navigation is expected to be open in a few days." On 
the 25th an Ottawa telegiam reports that " a little boy was affected by 
sunstroke on Monday (23rd) while playing on York street. The ther- 
mometer registered 73 ° in the shade ;" and a Quebec despatch of the 
same date says : " The warm weather of the past few days ended this 
morning in a thunderstorm. It is now cool and cloudy, with indica- 
tions of rain." From Quebec, on the 28th, we learn : "Farm- 
ers from the surrounding country parishes report that the snow has 
nearly disappeared, and crops are being rapidly put in. They are fully 
three weeks in advance of last year." 

.Jl*c WEATHER RECORD AT MONTREAL. 
t. Overcast day ; light rain during early part of night ; maximum 
temperature 46 deg. 9m. 

2. Overcast, balmy day ; max. temp. 48 deg. im. 

3. Cold night ; brilliant morning ; keen N.E. wind ; river ice very 

shaky ; dust on roads ; hardly a trace of snow left ; max. 
temp. 35 deg. 

4. Bright, cold morning ; froze hard last night ; roads in many places 

dry and dusty ; river open above the Nuns' Island ; road to 
Laprairie impassable ; max. tern. 43 deg. 

5. Bright, warm morning ; navigation open at Kingston, and boat 

running ; ice still firm opposite Montreal ; dusty roads ; rob- 
ins and song sparrows arrived ; max. temp. 44 deg. 4m. 

6. Overcast morning, with spittings of snow and rain ; rained briskly 

towards 5 p.m. ; day raw and cold ; ice broken along both 
shores of river ; rained through part of night ; max. tern. 47 ° 

7. Bright, cloudless day ; cold north wind ; sun powerful ; max. 
T temp. 43 deg. 

1 8. Brilliant summer-like day ; easterly wind ; max. temp. 47 deg. 7m. 
4 9. Bright, warm, dusty, summer-like day ; ice broken up all down 
4 channel of river ; steamboat running on Richelieu to Beloeil ; 

* very advanced season ; max. temp. 54 deg. 7m. 
I 10. Warm, summer-like day ; street cars commenced running ; great 

♦ ice shove — ice two feet thick ; max. temp. 55 deg. 6m. 

!n. Summer weather; very dusty; river channel well open; no 
swallows yet ; max. temp. 56 deg. 4m. 
12. Brilliant day; cold N.E. wind ; dust in clouds; ice not yet left 
front of city, but open everywhere else ; maximum temp. 
49 deg. im. 
t 13. Hazy morning ; calm and bright ; warm and very dusty ; ice 

• still jammed up in river ; max. temp. 55 deg. 7m. 
i 14. Same as last three days ; dusty, warm summer weather ; very dry 
4 period ; max. temp. 58 deg. 



15. Calm, balmy weather ; no signs of rain ; ice left front of city last 
night ; max. temp. 6 1 deg. 

1 6. Cloudy day ; dust fearful ; water below wharves ; ice, as a body, 
gone ; open for boats ; max. temp. 52 deg. 

17. Cloudy day ; first steamboat arrived — 10 days earlier than last 
season ; rain at 2 p.m. ; tug W. C. Francis first vessel in, 
shortly followed by others ; max. temp. 57 deg. 

18. Rained a little last night ; warm, bright morning ; vegetation 
advancing rapidly ; more like May than April ; several steam- 
boats and other river craft in ; max. temp. 56 deg. 8m. 

19. Rained all night ; sleet and snow in morning ; cold rain all day ; 
no swallows yet ; max. temp. 46 deg. 

20. Rain, snow, sleet ; ground this morning white ; all slush ; cold 
rain all day ; max. temp. 39 deg. 

21. Ground white with snow this morning; snowing briskly at 7, 8 
and 9 a. m. ; snow in London, Eng. ; wintry day ; maximum 
temp. 41 deg. 6m. 

22. Warm, summer-like day ; swallows arrived in considerable num- 
bers ; max. temp. 65 deg. 

23. Brilliant, summer-like weather ; swallows in every direction, and 
other birds ; max. temp. 73 deg. 

24. Hot day — unusual warmth for the season ; shower at night ; max. 
temp. 74 deg. 2m. 

25. Much cooler ; thunderstorm at Quebec yesterday ; weather cool 
and pleasant all day ; max. temp. 61 deg. 3m. 

26. Beautiful summer weather ; snow to the far West yesterday ; 
max. temp. 61 deg. 

27. Dry, summer-like weather ; max. temp. 61 deg. 3m. 

28. Cloudy day ; rained evening and all night ; max. temp. 55 ° 4'. 

29. Raining this morning ; afternoon fine ; evening and night again 
wet ; max. temp. 61 deg. 2m. 

30. Raining hard ; cold rain ; cloudy evening and night ; maximum 
temp. 54 deg. 2m. 



MAY. 

May's genial characteristics were not lacking in 1877, for early in 
the month the Toronto Mail says : " It is the general talk that not for 
years have we had so favorable a spring for farmers as the present one." 
An Ottawa telegram of the 9th says : " Farmers report that the crops 
are pretty well in. The weather has been favorable, and all that is 
now wanted to secure a bountiful harvest is occasional showers of rain." 
We may here be permitted to advert for a moment to a letter from 
France which appeared in the Montreal Witness of the 9th, in which 
the correspondent writes : " Spring continues to be as capricious as a 
woman — one day a smile and the next a concealment, mocking poor 
citizens." But to return to the weather in Canada. An exception to 
the general fine weather was felt in New Brunswick, as a despatch of the 



L. 



.».«.+.» -f 



THE YEAR REVIEWED— MAY, 1877. 77 

ioth says : "A foot of snow fell on Tuesday over the country between 
Sussex and Sackville, and much snow in the Gulf of St. Lawrence dis- 
trict." Two days later a telegram from Quebec says "agricultural re- 
ports from the surrounding country districts are very gratifying." On 
the 15th, despatches from Halifax, Ottawa, Boston, etc., report great 
bush fires, the smoke of which, like dense clouds, hung over the coun- 
try, so that in many places lamps had to be lit much earlier in the 
evening than usual. Intelligence of very extensive bush fires continued 
to arrive on the 1 6th, and a telegram from Winnipeg reports "Weather 
warm ; two cases of sunstroke ; crops all in." A weather item in the 
Witness on the 17th stated that "the long expected rain which fell last 
night was much needed, nearly three weeks having elapsed since the 
last rain fall. Gardens and trees look very much improved this morn- 
ing by it." On the i8tha very disastrous storm, which blew down the 
Roman Catholic Church at St. Hypolite, was telegraphed from Joliette 
and St. Jerome. The Rev. Mr. Boileau, Vicar of St. Jerome, was 
instantly killed, and his son fatally injured. The New York World, 
commenting on the weather on the 1 8th, says : "We do not often talk 
abouj the weather, but the weather of yesterday forces itself into discus- 
sion. The heat was almost unprecedented so early in the season ;" 
and the Witness of the 25th, referring to it, says : "Vegetation is at 
present extraordinarily advanced, and there have not been two Queen's 
Birthdays in a score of years which have been ushered in with such 
luxurious foliage as was our 24th this year." 

MONTREAL RECORD. 

1. Cloudy, cold morning — cold enough for snow ; snow in Sarnia ; 

max. temp. 59 deg. 3m. 

2. Cold, cloudy morning ; flurry of snow and sleet towards evening ; 

very cold night for the season ; max. temp, 44 deg. 7m. 

3. Cold morning ; overcast afternoon ; snow-storm at Three Rivers ; 

max. temp. 48 deg. 2m ; min. 32 deg. 2m. 

4. Beautiful cloudless day ; warmer ; severe frost lastjnight ; max. 

temp. 54 deg. 2m ; min. 36 deg. 6m. 

5. Brilliant, warm summer morning ; fountains commenced to play in 

public gardens and squares ; max. temp. 56 deg. 2m. 

6. Warm, summer-like day; wind cool ; max. temp. 61 deg. 3m. 

7. Warm, summer-like day ; clouded over in afternoon ; rain towards 

5 p.m. — light shower; vegetation unusually advanced, and 
advancing most rapidly ; max. temp. 51 deg. 7m 

8. Cold again, and cloudy ; snow in lower provinces. 

9. Cold, windy, fall-like day ; stormy night ; max. temp. 49 deg. 9m. 

10. Warmer ; wind and great dust ; cloudy ; rain much needed. 

11. Bright, beautiful day ; wind cool. 

12. Warm, hazy day ; very summer-like — more like June day ; hot 

afternoon ; ice-cream and soda-water going ; vegetation won- 
derfully advanced for the season ; max. temp. 68 deg. 

13. Summer day — hot; air filled with smoke from fires; very dry 

spell ; max. temp. 72 deg. 5m. 

14. Gale of wind last night ; wind and rain at 5 p.m. ; air full of smoke. 



78 THE YEAR REVIEWED— JUNE, 1 877. 

15. Warm weather ; bush fires everywhere — dense smoke ; rain much 

required ; max. temp. 74 deg. 9m. 
i6. Severe thunderstorm towards 10 p.m., with heavy rain. 

17. Close, sultry day ; thunder clouds ; more like June or July wea- 
ther than May. 

18. Hot, sultry weather ; intensely hot this morning ; heavy showers 
during afternoon, with thunder. 

19. Bright, hot morning ; young robins old enough to fly. 

20. Summer-like day ; cool evening and night. 

21. Cloudy weather with showers. 

22. 

23. . " " Snow fall reported in the Bonnechere 
district ; max. temp. 54 deg. 

24. Bright morning ; cloudy afternoon ; cold evening and night ; max. 
temp. 58 deg. 

25. Cool, cloudy morning; cold rain towards 1 p.m. ; showers during 
afternoon ; cold evening and night. 

26/ Cool day, with showers ; has been cool and cold now for one 
week ; max. temp. 61 deg. 7m. 

27. Warm day ; fine, summer-like weather again ; max. temp, 65 ° 7'. 

28. Sultry hot day ; max. temp. 76 deg. 3m. 

29. Warm, oppressive day ; smoke in air ; another dry spell ; max. 
temp. 78 deg. 2m. 

30. Hot, hazy weather ; smoke in air ; gale of wind during night ; 
max. temp. 79 deg. 

31. Cloudy day ; warm ; max. temp. 72 deg. 7m. 



JUNE. 

The early part of June was very warm, and until the 10th the dry 
^weather which had characterized the spring months continued. AfTer 
the fall of rain on the 10th — the first of a succession of showers which 
lasted until the 19th — a relapse occurred in the weather, during which 
flurries of snow were reported, and severe frosts visited many sections 
of the country, causing considerable damage to crops. An extract from 
the Pontiac Advance says : ' ■ The two nights of frost have done 
more harm than was at first anticipated ; the bean crop has been com- 
pletely killed ; potatoes, too, in some localities have suffered severely." 
Numerous other despatches reached us with regard to these frosts, one 
of which, from Charlesburg, reports a sharp frost and light fall of snow 
on the St. Louis road, realizing Mr. Vennor's probability where he 
says, " I shall not be surprised should there be an approach to snow in 
these midsummer months. " It has certainly been acknowledged as 
such by most people. The Kingston Whig of the 25th says : " We 
are having renewed faith in Vennor. He made mistakes last spring, 
but no man is infallible. He is reading the present weather very cor- 
rectly, however." Another feature of this month was a very disastrous 
storm on the 29th, the results of which were telegraphed from all parts 



of Western Ontario. Hailstones the size of walnuts covered the ground 
to the depth of several inches, to which window panes, roofs, tomato 
and potato vines fell victims, while the lightning struck down houses, 
barns and trees, and killed valuable cattle. Other severe storms were 
telegraphed during the month. A despatch from Halifax on the 27th 
says, " The house of William Guy was struck by lightning a few days 
ago, and Guy was instantly killed." On reference to the daily record 
it will be seen that the rains predicted for this month fell, and the gen- 
eral outlines of the weather were correct. 

MONTREAL RECORD. 

1. Hot, hazy morning ; no signs of rain ; therm. 83 ° 

2. Intensely hot, dry weather ; rain much needed ; unusual amount 

of hot weather so far. 

3. Hot day ; windy ; thunderstorm at midnight ; very little rain. 

4. Cool, fresh morning ; warm day ; heavy rains in Manitoba and 

elsewhere to westward ; spittings of rain in the evening ; night 
cool ; therm. 67 ° 8'. . 

5. Bright, cool morning; cloudy afternoon and evening ; ther. 55° 5' 

6. Rain still keeps off ; fine, cool day ; therm. 70 ° 2'. 

7. Sultry, clouded morning ; rain towards 4 p.m., of brief duration ; 

evening and night very oppressive. 

8. Hot, cloudy morning, with appearance of rain. 

9. Very sultry day ; cloudy ; shower of rain towards 2 and 4 p.m. ; 

very oppressive evening and night ; therm. 79 ° 7'. 

10. Rain last night and this morning ; thick, muggy atmosphere ; 

showers becoming more frequent ; rain again towards 10 a.m. ; 
steady rain up to 2 p.m. ; windy and clearing at 3 p.m. ; 
clear, cool evening ; heaviest rain of the month so far. 

1 1 . Bright, cool morning ; northerly wind ; cold last night ; evening 

and night again cold ; fires comfortable. 

12. Bright, cool morning ; rained heavily evening and night ; thunder 

and wind. 

13. Cool, cloudy day ; clear evening. 

14. Bright, cool day ; cool evening. • 

15. Fine, cool weather ; thunderstorm and rain at 2 p.m. ; sultry 

evening, with great display of lightning and distant thunder. 

16. Showery, overcast morning ; rain everywhere ; much cooler ; 

cool evening. 

17. Cool morning, with fresh wind ; cool evening and night. 

18. Fresh morning; warm day with haze; Ottawa papers contain 

reports of hail and wind storms damaging crops ; maximum 
temp. 78 ° 8'. 

19. Heavy rain during night ; high wind in morning ; evening cold ; 

night still, clear and cold, with frosts ; potatoes and other 
plants more or less injured. 

20. Severe frosts last night ; warm day ; cool evening ; heavy rain 

during night. 

21. Cold morning; cloudy; rained heavily towards 1 1 a.m. ; thunder- 

storm towards noon, with deluge of rain ; cold wind evening 
and night ; decided relapse m the weather. 



■ »«.♦.+ ■»»».♦.♦«♦»♦•♦■♦■♦■»■♦■♦.♦■♦■♦.»■♦.♦.».■».♦.♦■.♦■♦.».♦.♦»».♦.♦■♦■♦.♦■♦■♦.»» 
80 THE YEAR REVIEWED — JULY, 1 87 7. 



22. Cold, windy morning, with cold showers ; almost cold enough 

for snow; N.W. wind ; cold showers all day; evening fine 
and clear ; night very cold, with severe frosts. 

23. Bright, clear, cold morning ; very severe frosts last night, much 

injuring plants ; dark, still, cloudy evening and night. 

24. Wet morning ; day altogether fine and warm ; light shower dur- 

ing evening. 

25. Hot, windy morning; storm of wind and rain during afternoon ; 

calm, fine evening. 

26. Warm day, with fleecy clouds ; warm evening ; bright moonlight 

night ; therm. 67 °. 

27. Hot day ; clear, cool moonlight night ; therm. 70 ° 3'. 

28. Sultry day, with showers during afternoon ; cool, cloudy evening 

and night. 

29. Morning sultry and threatening ; heavy thunderstorm at noon, 

and continuing to 3 p.m. \ showery afternoon and evening. 

30. Hot morning ; threatening rain ; heavy rain towards 5 p.m. ; pa- 

pers contain notices of flurry of snow along St. Louis Road, 
Quebec, during period of recent frosts. 
Note. — The highest readings of thermometer only are given. 



JULY. 

July, 1877, was the stormiest on record for a number of years. On 
the 5th a thunderstorm occurred at Buckingham, during which a daugh- 
ter of Hugh McNully was killed, and four days later the spire of the 
Methodist church in Prescott was struck by lightning. At Gait, Ont., 
a disastrous storm occurred on the 9th, by which a number of houses 
were unroofed and trees torn up by the roots. A despatch of the 9th 
from Pensaukee, Wis., says "a terrible whirlwind struck the town on 
Sunday night, leaving but three houses standing ; the Gardner House, 
a large hotel, was demolished ; residences, saw-mills, trees, fences, 
etc., were swept away ; six persons were killed and twenty wounded.'* 
In the Witness of the 10th it was published that " the captain of a fish- 
ing schooner, who arrived up from the Gulf on Saturday, reported that 
some days ago several fishing schooners off Gaspe were surprised by a 
sudden and heavy storm ; several of the vessels were driven ashore 
and wrecked, and the crews drowned.'' An Ottawa telegram of the 
1 6th reported that the City Hall bell had been struck by lightning, 
and the Toronto Globe of the same date contained particulars of a ter- 
rible storm which swept over Teeterville, Waterford and Port Jervis, 
N. Y. A furious storm from the west visited Quebec on the 17th, 
causing considerable damage in port, and on the following day intelli- 
gence arrived from Stroud of one of the heaviest hailstorms ever wit- 
nessed there. Church windows were smashed, fruit trees stripped, and 
the fall wheat was threshed out, the ground being covered with grain. 
We might quote from numerous other sources regarding the storms, 
but pass on to notice another feature of the month. An earthquake 

■ ».».».♦■»■».«.♦.».»•♦'♦»♦«■»•»•♦«♦■»■♦■»'»■♦«»■»'♦'♦■♦'»■♦•♦'♦'■♦■♦'♦'♦■♦'•■»'♦■♦■♦»■ > 



.«..».. »«♦.+«♦.+ . ».»■♦. 



THE YEAR REVIEWED— JULY, 1 877. 8 1 



was felt at Murray Bay on*he 17th, and extended to Kamouraska and 
Quebec, startling people from their beds, and on the 23rd tug steamers 
arriving up from below reported a tremendous commotion in the river 
about the time of the earthquake ; vessels rocked to and fro with great 
violence ; sailors, with frightened looks, rushed on deck and hailed 
each other to ascertain thf cause of such an unaccountable occurrence. 
In conclusion, we may te permitted to quote from the Peterborough 
Examiner, which says : " Vennor's midsummer weather predictions 
are very nearly correct, md those who began to doubt him seem now 
to have faith in his prophetic visions. He is, without doubt, the best 
weather prophet in the business." 

• 
COUNTY OF OTTAWA RECORD. 

1. Thunderstorm in early morning; heavy rains in the afternoon, 

and gale of wind from westward ; rains increasing in frequency. 

2. Morning shower/ ; clear at noon ; cool evening. 

3. Bright, hot morning ; calm ; heavy showers to north-westward ; 

windy ; night dark and stormy. 

4. Very hot day ; 80 ° 6' in Montreal ; close sultry evening and 

night. 

5. Hot morning ; heavy rain, with thunder and lightning, at I pm, ; 

showers all afternoon ; raining hard at 5 p.m., with lightning 
and thunder ; cool evening ; girl killed by lightning at Buck- 
ingham. 

6. Fine, warm morning ; fleecy clouds ; afternoon hot ; cool evening 

and night ; northern lights at night. 

7 . Bright, warm morning ; fleecy clouds ; very sultry with increasing 

clouds. 

8. Shower this morning ; very hot day ; severe thunderstorm to- 

wards 4 p.m., with tremendous rain-fall; fine, cool evening. 

9. Intensely hot day ; 80 ° 2' in Montreal ; storms gathering on all 

sides ; very heavy rain, with thunder and lightning, at 4 and 
7 p.m. 

10. Slightly cooler ; cloudy ; westerly breeze ; fine, cool evening. 

11. Very warm again ; steamy clouds ; S.W. wind ; spittings of rain ; 
fine, cool evening. 

Sultry, overcast day ; S. W. wind ; heavy shower at 2 p. m. ; 
cool, almost cold, evening and night. 

Clear, cold morning; N.W. wind ; spitting clouds in the after- 
noon ; cold evening and night, almost frost. 

14. Fine, hot morning ; clouds increasing towards evening. 

15. Rained during night and early morning ; sultry and clouded even- 

ing and night, with rain ; heavy rains at several places in Ot- 
tawa valley. 

16. Dull, oppressive morning; intense sultriness in the afternoon; 

thermometer at Quebec lio° ; dark, cloudy night. 

1 7. Same cloudy and oppressive weather ; heavy rain towards noon — 

the heaviest of the season so far ; clearing afternoon ; fresh 
westerly wind ; great rain-storm at Quebec. 
Sultry, clouded day ; distant thunder heard. 



»+■■»•♦ »+'♦■♦■»'♦•»»»■♦•♦■♦■♦•♦'♦'»'♦■♦'♦ »•».+ ■•»'■»■»'»'♦•♦'♦'♦•♦■♦•♦■♦■♦■♦•+•♦'■■» 
82 THE YEAR REVIEWED — AUGUST, 1 87 7. 

19. Rained hard all morning; east wind; clear noon; high wind 

from S. W. evening and night. 

20. Clouded, windy day, with storms to south-eastward and north- 

westward ; cool, windy night. 

21. Cold morning ; north-west wind ; heavy cold rain towards 7 p.m. ; 

very fall-like evening. 

22. Bright, hot day ; thunder clouds in the afternoon ; cool, fine 

evening. 

23. Cold last night ; heavy dew ; hot day, with strong N. W. blow ; 

cool, almost cold, evening and night ; thermometer 81 ° 2' at 
Montreal. 

24. Calm, cloudy morning ; hot, clear afternoon, with scorching 

wind ; hottest "day of season so far ; evening very oppressive ; 
therm, at Montreal 84 ° 4'. 

25. Very hot again ; no clouds ; west wind ; evening cloudy, with 

southerly wind ; warmest spell this summer ; therm. 88 ° 5' 
at Montreal. 

26. Same terribly hot and oppressive weather ; calm ; evening very 

sultry, changing suddenly to cool night ; therm, at Mont- 
real 88 5'. 

27. Cool, cloudy morning ; sultry day ; cool, cloudy evening ; poured 

rain all night . 

28. Sultry, clouded morning ; everything steaming with muggy heat ; 

day and evening showery and very sultry. 

29. Same hot, muggy weather ; rained heavily during forenoon ; dis- 

tant thunder ; a great deal of rain fell to-day ; thermometer at 
Montreal 84 ° 8'. 

30. Clear, bright, warm morning ; cool evening and night ; therm. 

at Montreal 82 ° 9'. 

31. Clear, cool, almost cold, morning ; warm day ; clear, cold even- 

ing and night, with great display of stars and aurora. 
Note. — This month's record corresponds strikingly with that for 
the same month of the year 1875. 



AUGUST. 

The August of 1876 was the driest, perhaps, in a score of years, 

I in striking contrast with which the month in 1877 was perhaps the 

T most rainy, as a few newspaper extracts will show. The Woodstock 

I Review oi the 9th says : " The prospects for an abundant harvest in 

I Innerkip were excellent, but the heavy rains of last week have done 

I great damage to the grain that was not gathered in. Vennor's prob- 

t abilities have been to some extent realized ;" and on the loth we hear 

♦ from another source that " a hailstorm of unusual severity passed over 

I the lower part of Allumette Island. It took a breadth of from one 

f half to one mile, and levelled everything in its course, cut down the 

t growing grain, corn and potatoes, and stripped the forest trees bare of 

I their leaves." About this date hailstorms extended from Ottawa city 

\ northward to the Desert settlement, 90 miles up the Gatineau, as well 
4 



THE YEAR REVIEWED— AUGUST, 1877. 83 f 



as a long way beyond Pembroke. Mr. Vennor can attest to the fury 
of these hailstorms, having had an unpleasant experience in one. 
While driving forty miles north of Ottawa a terrific storm occurred, 
the hailstones, which were as large as plums, pelting down upon him- 
self and his horse until the animal, smarting from their effects, refused 
to move, and the driver could only shield himself as well as possible, 
and anticipate fine weather after the storm. The hailstones, during 
the storms which were of daily occurrence between the ioth and 15th, 
frequently lay on the ground for twenty-four hours without melting, 
and the crops suffered severely in many sections .of country. An Ot- 
tawa telegram on the 13th read that " A farmer from the mountain 
district says that some of the hailstones were as large as good sized 
hens' eggs, and that one of them struck an employee of his in the face, 
and inflicted a severe wound. Fowls were killed, and travellers were 
obliged to take refuge in barns and other places. " In North Onslow 
the storm had no parallel in the memory of the " oldest inhabitant," 
and many thought "the end " was at hand. On the 15th a very se- 
vere storm of thunder and lightning was telegraphed from Ottawa, and 
a newspaper correspondent at Kazabazua, on the Gatineau river, says 
that district was visited by a " most violent and destructive storm. At 
Aylwin, about four miles above Kazabazua, the school house was 
struck during the dinner hour, whilst the children were playing around 
in little groups. The accident caused the wildest confusion among the 
children, some of whom fainted away. The windows were all knocked 
out, the blackboard torn off the wall and set on fire, the beams were 
shattered, and one of the boys, named Orr, was violently thrown to the 
floor,- remaining insensible for some time. A building owned by Ham- 
ilton Bros., in the same vicinity, and occupied by Eli Emery, was 
damaged. Mrs. Emery, who was washing dishes at the time, and her 
daughter received a severe shock ; the heels of the girl's boots were 
torn off and her legs badly scorched. A son of Mr. George Hartley 
was knocked insensible. The Guelph Mercury of the 17th says: 
u Many farmers will lose heavily by the past heavy rains — a very un- 
fortunate affair after having repeated light .crops during the past few 
years ;" and an Ottawa despatch of the 1 8th says, " A farmer estimates 
that at least eight bushels of peas to the acre were threshed out by the 
hail during the recent storm.' Very heavy storms occurred at inter- 
vals during the whole of this month, and one particularly worthy of 
note on the night of the 29th passed over Montreal, the electric fluid 
entering the Central Police Station, and shocking Sergeant Neilson and 
a son of the caretaker in a manner which they have cause to remember. 

RECORD FOR THE GATINEAU AND LIEVRES SECTION. 

I. Warm, sultry day, with southerly wind ; ther., Montreal, 85 ° 3'. 

!2. " M " 80 ° 5'. 

3. Warm day ; cool evening and night ; ther. at Montreal 80 ° 6'. 

♦ 4. Cool day ; strong northerly blow in afternoon ; clouded, cool 
t evening ; very fall -like weather. 

t 5. Cool morning ; north-west blow ; wind and rain in the afternoon ; 
; unsettled, fall-like day ; thunder-storms coming from N. W. 



< 84 THE YEAR REVIEWED — AUGUST, 1877. 



6. Beautiful, cool and slightly clouded day ; rain during night. 

7. Rain last night ; unsettled day ; cold evening, with N. W. wind. 

8. Cool, clouded day ; thunderstorms to northward ; great display 
of lightning during evening and night. 

9. Wind from eastward ; heavily clouded ; severe storm during 
afternoon, with a great deal of thunder and lightning. 

10. Sultry morning, with easterly wind ; clouded, hot day ; thunder- 
storms tc northward very severe. 

11. Thunder-storms and intense sultriness all day ; wet evening ; 
storms very severe to-day and on the 9th all up the Gatineau j 
great hail-storms in some sections, resulting in considerable 
damage to grain. 

12. Sultry weather, and thunder-storms in all directions ; heavy set- 
tled rain during afternoon and evening. 

13. Clouded and sultry ; storms in all directions ; cool evening. 

14. Sultry, clouded morning; intensely hot afternoon and evening, 
with a great deal of lightning ; severe thunderstorm towards 
midnight, lasting for hours, and extending over a large area of 
country ; heavy rain ; great hail-storm in March and Eardley, 
on the Ottawa river ; great destruction of crops. 

15. Hot and clouded day ; evening clearer and cooler. 

16. Rained more or less all day ; cold, heavy rain during afternoon ; 
dark, unsettled evening ; very wet night. 

17. Poured rain all last night and this morning ; cleared toward noon ; 
cool, almost cold, night. 

18. Bright, pleasant weather ; first fine settled weather for harvest. 

19. Clouded morning ; heavy shower in afternoon ; evening fine. 

20. Another fine day for harvesting ; dry heat. 

21. " M 

22. Very sultry and oppressive day ; evening clouded and stormy- 
looking ; therm, at Montreal 86° i\ 

23. Terrible heat ; hottest day of season so far ; thermometer read- 
ings very high everywhere ; thunder and lightning, with some 
rain, during the evening ; max. temp, at Montreal 88 ° . 

24. Overcast and cooler ; southerly wind ; light rains ; rained all 
night in Ottawa and vicinity. 

25. Warm and clouded day ; thunder-storms seen passing to north- 
eastward ; evening decidedly cool. 

26. Fine, warm and slightly cloudy day ; heavy thunderstorm to 
northward during evening ; evening and night cool. 

27. Cool, breezy morning ; clouded afternoon ; evening and night 
dark, with light rains. 

28. Sultry day, with steamy clouds ; clouded evening and very sultry ; 
rain set in at 10 o'clock p.m., and continued most of the night. 

29. Bright, warm morning ; steamy clouds ; thunder-storm with rain 

!at 1 o'clock p.m. Storms during afternoon and evening. 
30. Bright, beautiful day ; fleecy clouds ; cool evening and night. 
31. Cloudy day, with easterly wind during forenoon ; dark afternoon ; 
wind from south-westward ; cold evening, with heavy blow 
t from north-westward during night ; heavy rain at Toronto. 



.».».»■♦■».».♦■♦. 



.»■♦.».»■».».♦.♦.♦.»■♦■+•♦•■»»♦»♦■♦«♦■»■♦•»■♦■»■»■♦■♦■♦ 



85 



THE YEAR REVIEWED — SEPTEMBER, 1877. 85 

SEPTEMBER. 

MONTREAL RECORD. 

1 . Morning cloudy and cool ; afternoon bright and pleasant ; wind 
N.E. 

2. Morning cool ; indications of rain in the afternoon ; thermometer 
at 7 a.m. 53 . 

3. Cold and cloudy. 

4. No change in the weather ; light rain-fall ; water gradually falling. 

5. Rain fell from 8 a.m. to 5 p.m. ; wind variable. 

6. Clear, cool and pleasant. 

7. Bright, pleasant day. 

8. No change. 

9. Fine, seasonable weather ; wind variable. 

10. Early morning dull ; bright and pleasant at noon. 

1 1 . Fair and pleasant. 

12. Cloudy ; atmosphere close and warm. 

13. Fair, clear and warm ; wind from S.W. to N. W. 

14. Close and warm; morning foggy ; clear at 7 a.m. 

1 5. Still warm ; fog in the morning. 

16. Warm ; light shower of rain in the afternoon. 

17. Bright and clear ; very warm ; heavy rain from 9 to 10 p.m., with 
high wind from N.W. 

18. Fair and pleasant. 

19. Morning clear ; afternoon cloudy. 

20. Cloudy and cool ; rain at 10 p.m. 

21. Morning cloudy ; afternoon clear and pleasant. 

22. Bright and pleasant ; water falling. 

23. Fair weather ; fresh breeze from the west in the evening. 

24. Weather seasonable. 

25. Morning fair ; noon cloudy ; heavy storm at 6 p.m. ; vivid light- 
ning and heavy rains. 

26. Morning clear ; afternoon cloudy ; west wind. 

27. Clear and pleasant. 

28. Early morning clear ; heavy rain at 1 1 a.m. ; afternoon showery 
and sultry. 

29. Morning foggy ; cloudy day. 

30. Fine, bright day ; wind westerly. 



OCTOBER. 

MONTREAL RECORD. 

1. Cloudy and warm ; thunderstorm at 10 p.m. 

2. Cool and cloudy ; water rose an inch. 

3. Cold and cloudy ; rain between 8 and 10 p.m. 

4. Dull and cloudy ; wind variable ; rain from 10 a.m. 

5. Cool and pleasant. 

6. Fine, seasonable weather. 
\ 



».♦..»>♦.♦■.♦.».»..♦.♦.».».».».♦..♦.♦.+,.».».».» .».»., 4 . ».».♦. ♦.♦..»-, ».».».» ,»..».«» ^ 

j ! 86 THE YEAR REVIEWED — OCTOBER, 1877. 

7. Clear and bright ; wind W.N.W. 

8. Cloudy and dull ; wind S.E. by S. ; rain at 6 p.m. 

9. Raining all day. 

10. Foggy morning ; cloudy day ; evening fair. 

11. Rain all forenoon ; afternoon unsettled. 

12. Rainy all day ; wind N.E. 

13. Showery ; wind easterly. 
14 Cloudy and showery ; very unsettled weather. 

15. Dull and cool ; showers during the day. 

16. Heavy rain last night ; showery morning ; afternoon clear. 

17. Bright and^clear. 

18. Afternoon cloudy, with variable winds. 

19. Cloudy and dull ; light rains at times. 

20. First frost last night ; cloudy and dull, 

21. Cool and cloudy. 

22. Variable wind ; weather unchanged. 

23. Light rains in the morning ; cloudy day. 

24. Morning foggy ; rained all afternoon ; wind N.E. 

25. First snow of the season ; wintry appearance ; cold and disagree- 
able. 

26. Clear and cool. 

27. Bright day, with variable winds. 

28. Morning foggy ; clear at 9 a. m. 

29. Rain in the morning ; cloudy at noon. 

30. Weather clear and bright after the rain. 

31. Morning hazy ; rain at 10 a. m. ; wind south. 

Tortoises as Weather Indicators. — If there be any truth in 
a paper read by a French savant at a recent meeting of the Academy 
of Sciences in Paris, every well-regulated household should have one or 
more tortoises about the premises. According to M. Bouchard, tor- 
toises take extraordinary precautions against the cold weather. Their 
instinct tells them in the milder seasons when the thermometer is likely 
to fall to freezing point, and toward the end of autumn warns them also 
of the approach of winter. In both cases they take precautions to 
screen themselves from cold, and by carefully observing them M. 
Bouchard has for years been enabled to regulate his hot-house. At the 
end of autumn, when the winter threatens to be severe, tortoises creep 
deep into the earth, so as to completely conceal themselves from view. 
If, on the contrary, the winter promises to be mild, they scarcely go 
down an inch or two — just enough to protect the openings of their 
shells. Last January, which was so mild, they even went about. Last 
month, the thermometer standing at 50 ° Fahr. , our author saw his 
tortoises creep into the ground, and that very night the glass fell to 
28 ° Fahr. On the 1st inst, the mercury being at no° Fahr. in the 
sun, one of the tortoises hid itself ; on the following morning there was 
hoar frost. — Forest and Stteam. 



Canada's national magazine, the New Dominion Monthly. 
128 pages a month — $2 a year. 



. ».».».»■ 



»-♦..— 4 



THE EARTHQUAKE OF NOVEMBER, 1877. 87 

THE EARTHQUAKE OF NOVEMBER, 1877. 

The earthquake of November 4th, 1877, was felt all through the 
eastern section of New York, New Hampshire, Vermont, western 
Massachusetts, and the province of Quebec north and west as far as 
Ottawa, and east to Sorel. In Montreal it was felt at precisely 
between ten and eleven minutes to two a.m., the motion being from 
eastward to westward. The shock lasted about thirty seconds, the pre- 
monitory rumbling occupied perhaps another twenty seconds, and the 
receding noise some thirty seconds more. The Montreal Witness de- 
scribes it as follows : 

" The first announcement of the disturbance was a low rumbling 
sound, which perceptibly grew harsher, ending with what might be 
termed a bumping or explosive noise ; then came the shock or tremor, 
which was felt most severely by those sleeping in the upper stories of 
tall houses. 

" Some report two shocks, one following the other, and the Mitt* 
erve says there was a second about half an hour after. In one case, in 
a bank, quite a swaying motion was experienced by the messenger, who 
immediately rushed down the lighted staircase, imagining that burglars 
had lifted the safes and vaults with a ton of dynamite or so. When he 
had got into the dimly-lit basement all was silent and still as the grave, 
and though he says cold chills didn't run over him, yet he admits that 
he felt frightened. The majority of heavy sleepers, judging by several 
cases which have been noted by our reporters, were not wakened by 
the shock ; but there must have been thousands, however, who were, 
because the general inquiry in the morning, ' Did you feel the earth- 
quake last night ?' was nearly always answered in the affirmative. 

"No casualties are reported, except that a great many people got 
very much frightened, imagining that burglars or supernatural visitors 
had intruded themselves. The Herald says a gentleman residing on 
St. Catherine street west, who was reading at the time, was thrown 
three feet from his chair, and numerous similar instances are reported, 
the distance in each case being greater than in the previous one ; and 
the Gazette, not to be outdone, announces that the Queen's statue in 
Victoria square swayed her sceptre for once, and seemed to the aston- 
ished policeman on duty there to be beckoning the Bonaventure block 
to fall upon him and wipe him out of existence. 

" These remarkable manifestations of disturbance seem to stand 
out isolated and alone, and as far as we can learn nothing but the 
tongues of bells were moved and doors slightly swung. Of course, to 
those out upon the streets at that hour, in possession of all their facul- 
ties, the phenomenon was invested with a painful air of reality. A po- 
liceman at the west end said he was walking slowly along the stone 
pavement, when suddenly he thought that he heard a street car being 
driven rapidly towards him, and was actually wondering why he could 
not hear the tinkling of the bells on the horses' necks, when he was 
greatly unnerved by feeling the ground undulating under him. He 
ran out from the walk into the middle of the street, ' For,' said he, 
' the block of three -story houses back of me was all of a shake, and 



the pavement was fairly rolling toward me, like as if you would shake 
a carpet.' A gentleman on St. Catherine street, who was roused, 
went to the window and perceived a policeman standing in the middle 
of the street, and apparently in a state of terror. In response to a 
question, the alarmed guardian of the peace remarked that ' something 
was up,' but he could not exactly say what." • 

"The reports show that the shock passed underneath all parts of the 
city, and was felt by the sailors on watch on board the ships in harbor. 
Upon the direction of the shock being with the parallels of latitude all 
agree, but as to whether it went from west to east or east to west is 
disputed. It is said that dogs were observed to be uneasy, and en- 
deavored to get outside of buildings . The night was windy at first, 
but more serene and star-lit when Nature began to travail. The tem- 
perature was not unusually low. 

" A gentleman living on Drolet street gives the following account : 
' I was awake at five minutes before two o'clock at the time of the 
earthquake, and noticed the first indication at about that time. It was 
as if a heavily loaded wagon was passing along. This noise then 
ceased, and in a few seconds it recurred, increasing to a shock like a 
rupture, then decreasing again, the time occupied being one and a half 
minutes. I may say that, my door being ajar, I could count the vibra- 
tions, which were east and west. ' 

" A gentleman residing on Drummond street says that the dura- 
tion of the disturbance after the shock could not have been less than 
forty-five seconds, as during its progress he was enabled to rise leisurely 
and strike a light. It was nine minutes to two by his watch (subject 
to correction of time) when the noise was done. 

" A gentleman in the west end says the shock came with such 
violence as to make him fear that there was some danger of the house 
falling down. 

" Two different persons stated that they heard a rushing or a fiz- 
zing noise accompanying the shock. In one case this might have been 
caused by telegraph wires clashing together, but it could not have been 
from this cause in the second case. 

"A conjunction of the planets Mars and Saturn occurred about 
the hour of the earthquake, and whether this may have had any con- 
nection with the quake is for scientists to determine. It is well known, 
however, that Mercury is connected with fully one half of the worst of 
our meteoric disturbances. Mansill says : * The principal disturbing 
positions of the planets for November appear to be located about the 
3rd, the 10th to 13th, and the 20th to 2 1st.' There was also a new 
moon on the 4th." 



We are glad to observe the constant improvements that are being 
made in this excellent periodical (New Dominion Monthly). The 
circulation is rapidly increasing, and it promises to be one of the best 
and cheapest magazines for family reading to be had. — Owen Sound 
Advertiser. 



.».».»■♦.». 



MY OWN CHAPTER. 

THE AUTUMN, WINTER AND SPRING OF 1877-78. 

Our birch canoes were quietly gliding down the last stretch of the 
Riviere aux Lievres, and the sullen boom of the falls at Buckingham 
had just broken in upon the quiet of a sultry evening in September, 
when we were hailed by a solitary canoeman from the middle of the 
stream, " Letters for Vennor and party !" Vennor and party were 
instantly on hand, and shortly each one had received his batch of 
" home correspondence." In my own packet my eye was at once ar- 
rested by a very familiar monogram, namely, that of my indefatigable 
weather clerk, and eager to learn the latest weather sensation, I opened 
and perused the letter as we paddled over the short distance which still 
intervened to our landing place. And this is what I read : " Well, we 
are waiting for your weather predictions for the autumn, winter and spring 
of 1877-78. What are they to be ? Printers are bothering my life out, 
and I wish to have a little left to finish up your Almanac. Hurry up ! t 
Yours truly, etc." It came upon me as a thunderbolt. Was there to \ 
be another almanac ? Had I really promised another forecast of the 1 
weather for a year in advance ? Instantly visions of Toronto Globes, t 
Montreal Gazettes, lurid Stars and Bobcaygeon Independents floated | 
through my brain, while in the mirror-like waters of the Lievres I fan- 
cied I saw pictured a grinning Grip and hideous cartoon. I had taken 
the advice of the Witness poet in 

THE SEER'S LAMENT. 

I know the covert of the wolf, 

The red deer I out-ran, 
The heron's haunt and the snowy lair 

Of the wintry ptarmigan. 
The owl was my familiar, 

I knew the beaver's plan, 
And the garter snake he whispered me 

What is not known to man. 



From my deep Laurentian Valley 
\ I pierced the infinite blue, 

Bathed in the dewy influence 
• Of Pleiades I grew. 



J 



.♦.».♦.♦♦».».♦.». 



9° THE AUTUMN, WINTER AND SPRING OF 1877-78. 



I knew Arcturus and his sons, 

Orion bold I knew, 
And the epochs and the omens 

Of Sirius' changing hue. 

I loitered with the zephyr 

On the balmy summer morn, 
And scampered with the hurricane, 

And knew where he was born. 
The equinoctial whirlwind 

Full oft I laughed to scorn, 
For I knew his inmost secrets, \ 

And his terrors I had shorn. 

I pierced the foggy treasure house, 

And the wealth of waters told ; 
I scanned the stores of Winter, 

And measured out the cold. 
I have walked with old December 

And his burly brethren bold, 
And I made a winter almanac, 

And twenty thousand sold. 

I drove the chariot of the wind, 

I gave the clouds their form, 
And oft arrayed at my behest 

The armies of the storm ; 
And all their grand artillery 

Would soldierly perform ; 
Should I not tell the people 

The cold days and the warm ? 

I told the snow its seasons, 

And the frost its setting in ; 
In letters to the JVitness 

Bright laurels did I win. 
And multitudes believed, 

And counted it a sin 
Not to believe the thaws and dips 

That I had writ therein. 

But days of evil followed, 

And the shadow back did roll, 
And the unchained powers of nature 

Took vengeance on my soul, 
When my prophetic Python turnc" 

To me his negative pole, 
Nor could I bid him silence, 

Or his lying tongue control. 

For March the very ancients 
Had figured by a ram — 



THE AUTUMN, WINTER AND SPRING OF 1877-78. QI 

My demon brought him on the boards 
A lion and a lamb. 
* And the people chaffed my lion, 

And called the lamb a sham, 
And my St. Patrick's prophecy 
An unexampled "cram." 

Then all the minor prophets crowed 

With wings and crest elate, 
And all the dogs of jealousy 

Barked out their little hate. 
Oh, would that I could but be still 

Till this is out of date, 
' And next year's winter almanac 

Might reconstruct my fate. : 

I 

But now, notwithstanding my faithful adherence to this advice, as surely } 
as the recurring seasons my time of trial had again arrived. What was \ 
to be done ? In my canoe were three weather-beaten voyageurs — men t 
who from infancy had "paddled their own canoes." Turning to tnese, J 
I abruptly demanded : t 

" What kind of an autumn ate we going to have ?" ♦ 

" Plenty rain," " Not much water, " and "Dunno," were the re- * 
plies I received. \ 

" What sort of winter shall we probably have ?" t 

" Oh, plenty good deep snow — some good cold," " Pshaw ! Great t 
plenty rain — dry summer wet winter — not much cold," and " Dunno," i 
were the respective answers. t 

Once more I ventured, " Then we shall have a dry spring ?" 

" No, wet— plenty wet, "said the one. 

•• Pshaw ! Wait, you see. I bet you not much water — plenty rain 
byme-by next summer," cried the second. 

" Yer two durned fools !" growled the third, " and dunno nothing. 
Ain't you seen the beavers ?" 

" No ! What you see?" eagerly questioned my two Frenchmen. 

" You ain't seen the beavers ?" again reiterated No. 3. 

" No, no ! See no beaver. Pourquoi, eh ?" gasped the expectant 
Frenchmen. 

"Just case I hain't seen a durned one myself for more'n a twelve- 
month/' quietly grinned the pilot, as, with a vigorous spurt of the pad- 
dle, he brought the canoe up to the landing place. 

Comforting myself with the assurance that perhaps, after all, I 
knew more about the weather than the whole three put together, I 



'♦■t' »' f > 'f »' f*»t' t '»'»'f»' »'» ' t 't>t> » 't » ■ » » » > » »» > 



* 9 2 THE AUTUMN, WINTER AND SPRING OF 1877-78. 

) 

i . . 

t stepped ashore, but not until I had quietly whispered in the ear of the 
f " rainy " Frenchman, 

I '* Plenty rain, eh? Warm autumn? Wet spring, eh? Come 

t along — you're my man. Great minds think alike." 

(Thus did the shadowy skeleton of my almanac for 1877-78 first 
present itself to me ; but I hurry to add that this skeleton ere long 
I assumed a more definite shape, became clothed with flesh, muscle and 
skin, and finally stood forth so life-like and natural that I again entrust- 
ed it with my reputation as a weather-cock, and have actually persuaded 
myself that in spite of " Pshaw !" the people of Canada do really be- 
lieve that Vennor, after all, does know something about the weather. 

0- 

THE WEATHER TO COME. 

Shortly after the canoe episode just related, and about the 1st of 
October, I despatched to my Almanac publishers my first hurried im- 
pressions of the weather for the autumn of 1877 and winter and spring 
of 1878. These read as follows : 

" Indians, farmers, trappers and lumbermen whom we have inter- 
viewed over a very broad-spread area all agree on one point, viz., great 
precipitation during the fall and winter months approaching, but 
whether this will be as snow or rain is a question I found few prepared 
to answer definitely. This great precipitation is but a natural conclu- 
sion to arrive at, for otherwise we should of necessity have a most un- 
precedented condition of things. The majority of the people interviewed 
are inclined to believe that deep snows will be the programme for next 
winter, while the minority prognosticate rains and very open weather. 
With this last party I myself fall in, and for some such reasons as the 
following. When there is great precipitation (snow or rain) during any 
particular season the temperature is seldom very low. Therefore, should 
this first and leading impression be correct, we may expect a moderate 
winter. Further, as thunder-storms have been unusually prevalent 
throughout the whole of the past summer, and even still continue, 
(1st Oct.), I look for a temperature more productive of rains than 
snows. Consequently our approaching winter and spring will, in all 
probability, be moist and slushy. But I expect some sharp seasons, and 
and the first of these will come early. Snow will probably fall early, 
but will not remain. 

" October will be a cold month, with snows and rains. 

"November bids fair to be warm, with but few severe frosts, until 



-.♦■« <».4 .♦■«- 



THE 



AUTUMN, WINTER AND SPRING OF 1877-78. 93 



towards its latter part, and I am inclined to locate in this month a well 
marked and beautiful Indian summer. 

« JteMMfer will in all probability set in very sharp, but this cold 
term will be of short duration, and give place speedily to rains and 



snows. 



January, of 1878, looks to me at present gloomy, wet and foggy, 
and not unlike that of the season of 1875. 

" February again-I must be cautious about this fickle month this 
time-will set in severely. I look for more snow than rain ; conse- 
quently this month will be probably the most wintry-like of the whole 

" «" Jft^A will bring more snow during its early part, but the month 
will end wet, with heavy winds, and bids fair to go out exceedingly 

™" 'April, May and the first half of June will be very wet. This 
impression is firmly imprinted on my mind, and this wet spring will 
probably be followed by an intensely hot, muggy midsummer. 

•< The whole autumn and winter will be favorable to the increase of 
throat diseases and fevers, also cattle diseases, and I agree with Prof. 
Mansill in anticipating the approach of Asiatic cholera towards north- 
ern latitudes. 

"Riviere aux lievret, Oct. 6th, 1877. ' 
Such was the sketch hastily penned and sent off to my printers 
early in October, and I have only to add that three subsequent fore- 
casts made from other and more extended data agreed so closely with 
' the first in general details that I have determined to abide by this, and 
\ merely intend to paint in slightly firmer colors a few features m the . 
• weather which may be particularly noticeable. t 

Indian Summer.-l am inclined to predict a warm and well- 
! marked Indian summer in the month of November, as I believe October 
} will be cold and wet. 

Cold Snaps. -The first of these I would locate in October, but of 
I course this will be moderate. The second will arrive towards the lat- 
1 ter part of November or early portion of December, and waters will 
: become pretty well ice-locked. This also will be of short duration 
\ giving place to heavy rains and snow-falls with open weather. A third 
t cold term will probably enter with or close upon the entry of February, 
\ and this I am inclined to sketch as more protracted than the preceding . 
t ones. It will moderate to heavy snow-falls rather than rams. j 

♦ . . . , , " ' 



*-.-. 



94 



CHOLERA — PROF. MANSILL's PREDICTION. 



~ 



Thunder -storms. — Judging from the action of the thunder-storms 
this year, I should expect these to continue up to a late date, and it 
will not surprise me should I have to record one or more during the 
approaching winter. 

Earthquakes. — There is now going on in the long range of Laur- 
entian Mountains a very considerable agitation. On several occasions 
while camped out this summer we have felt distinct shocks and tremors" 
of the earth. " Trembling Mountain," in the " Nation " waters, and 
"Devil Mountain, " between the Gatineau and Lievres rivers, have 
scared the Indians for miles around by their hollow rumblings ; while, 
more recently, an earthquake wave has swept over a large part of 
North America. 

H. G. V. 

» »». 

CHOLERA -PROF. MANSILL'S PREDICTION. 

Prof. Mansill's "Almanac of Planetary Meteorology" for 1876 
contains the following remarkable prediction in regard to cholera, 
which is being partially fulfilled : 

"We may expect the next regular cholera epidemic period to com- 
mence about 1876 or 1877 in southern latitudes, and reach its height 
about 1878 or 1879 in northern latitudes, and return to southern lati- 
tudes again about 1880. * * There will probably be cholera epi- 
demic in the East Indies, and perhaps further west, during the spring 
and early summer months of 1876." 



Showers of Toads.— Notwithstanding the fact that the so-called 
showers of toads have been accounted for by naturalists showing that 
the long needed rain has called myriads of young toads from their hid- 
ing places, and the ground Where none were seen a few hours before 
suddenly becomes alive with the little creatures who come forth to en- 
joy the moisture, there are still many who firmly believe in their fluvial 
origin. There is a fact in this connection that does not appear to be 
generally known, even to those who are well posted in such matters, 
which is, that the young toad has two modes of development. The 
best known one is that of passing through the tadpole state when the 
eggs are laid in water, in a manner similar to that of the frug ; the 
other is the wonderful property that is possessed by the egg of a toad, 
enabling it to skip the tadpole form and hatch a perfect toad if laid in 
moist earth instead of water. It is not improbable that a warm rain 
may be required to develop the embryo, or at least release it from the 
egg. If so, a " shower of toads " is the result. 



No well regulated Canadian family should be without the New 
Dominion Monthly, Canada's leading magazine. 



-■»■♦•—♦•.■♦". ■».-»-.■».. »<+!-» 






METEOROLOGICAL INSTRUMENTS. 



THE BAROMETER. 

Galileo, towards Jhe close of his life, being asked to explain why 
it was that, if Nature abhors a vacuum, water could not be raised by a 
suction pump higher than about thirty-two feet, was compelled to admit 
that Nature's abhorrence was measured by a column of water that 
height. His thoughts being once directed to this question, he followed 
it closely until death put an end to his labors, but not before he had 
strongly recommended his pupil, Toricelli, to continue the investi- 
gation, 'i 
Toricelli, following up the matter, argued that the power which i 
held up a column of water to the height of thirty-two feet would hold ^ 
up a column of mercury— rmercury being four- i 
teen times heavier than water — a proportionate § 
height.* To test this, in 1643 he filled with i 
mercury a glass tube about three feet in length, ? 
closed the open end with his finger, and invert- * 
ing the tube, plunged it into a basin of mercury. * 
On removing his finger the mercury sank till it f 
stood at twenty-eight inches in the tube, leaving J 
a vacuum at the upper end. 
Continuing his experiments, 
he discovered that the mer- 
cury was sensitive, and rose • 
and fell according to the 
condition of the atmosphere, 
the height of the former 
changing with the slighest 
variation in the weight of the 
latter. He, also, died be- 
fore his observations were 
^, :===i ^^^ completed, but Pascal, in 

JfiSgHSte^ Rouen, France, took them 
r H?- up, and found that as the 

-,._...' /^y^^ thermometer was elevated 
or depressed the mercury 
fell or rose in the tube, and that at the same mo- 
ment the mercury in two barometers at different 
elevations would stand at different points. From 
this he devised the principle by which heights were 
measured by this instrument. 

Otto Guericke, an ingenious and wealthy Madgeburg burgomaster, 
early in the history of the barometer constructed a gigantic one for indi- 
cating the state of the weather. It was a glass tube thirty feet high, 
nearly filled with water, which was erected inside the walls of his house, 
and rose above the roof. In the upper part of the tube, which was I 
larger than the rest, was placed the figure of a man, so large as to be ♦ 



u. 



t~"' 



: 9 6 



METEOROLOGICAL INSTRUMENTS. 



- 1 



visible from the street. In fine weather this man, floating on the water, 
was raised above the roof, but on the approach of foul weather descend- 
ed into the house. 

The most perfect barometer of the present time was constructed by 
Prof. Daniell on the same principle as this one, and now stands in the 
hall of the Royal Society at Somerset House. The glass tube is forty 
feet long and an inch in diameter. The water in. the tube stands on an 
average four hundred inches above that in the cistern. The column 
is Sensitive to continual changes in the atmosphere which do not affect 
other barometers, and in windy weather vibrates up and down almost 
with the regularity of respiration. 

Perhaps the most common form of barometer in Canada is the wheel 
barometer, in which the varying height of the mercury is indicated by 
the movement of a needle on a divided circular dial. 
This is accomplished by adopting the syphon form of the 
barometer tube, which is concealed behind the dial and 
frame. An iron or glass float, sustained by the mercuiy 
in the open branch of the syphon, is suspended by a 
centre balance a little lighter than itself. The axis of 
the pulley has the needle attached to it, and consequently 
moves the needle by the rise and fall of the mercury. 
Thus, if the atmospheric pressure increases, the float 
falls and the needle turns to the right, and if it dimin- 
ishes, the needle turns in the opposite direction. The 
wording of these barometers of "Rain," "Change,'' 
"Fair," "Set Fair," "Very Dry," "Stormy," 
" Much Rain," is, of course, arbitrary and apt to mis- 
lead, as it is not as much the weight of the air as the 
change* in its weight which indicate coming weather. 

In " taking a reading," it is important that it should 
be done as quickly as possible* as the heat from the 
body and the hand is sufficient to interfere with that 
accuracy which is necessary when the intention is to 
compare the readings with other barometers. 

THE THERMOMETER. 

The Thermometer is an instrument for measuring degrees of heat by 
the contraction or expansion of fluids in enclosed tubes. The tubes, 
which are of glass, have spherical, elongated or spiral bulbs blown on to 
one end ; they have also an exceedingly fine bore, and, when mercury 
or spirit is enclosed in them, these fluids, in contracting or expanding 
with variations of temperature, indicate degrees of heat in relation to 
two fixed points, viz., the freezing and boiling points of water. In 
filling the tube, mercury, colored so as to be easily visible, is commonly 
used, the air first being excluded from the tube so that there will be a 
perfect vacuum, and thus no resistance be offered to the expansion of the 
fluid. 

When the fluid (either mercury or spirit) has been enclosed in the 
hermetically sealed bulbous tube, it becomes necessary in order that its 
indications of elevation or depression of temperature may be comparable 




M ETEOROLOG I C AL I N STR U M E N TS . 



97 



\v> 



with those of other instruments, that a scale having at least two fixed 
points should be attached to it. Consequently, as it has been observed 
that the temperature of melting ice or freezing water is always constant, 
the height at which the fluid rests in a mixture of 
ice and water has been chosen as one point from 
which to graduate the scale. It has also been fur- 
ther observed that with the barometer at 29.922 
* the boiling point of water is also constant ; and 
when a thermometer is immersed in pure distilled 
water, heated to the boiling point, the point at 
which the mercury remains immovable is, like the 
treezing point, carefully marked, and with these 
stationary points indicated, the tube is divided into c4 
as many equal parts as are necessary to constitute ^ 
either of the three scales at present in use. These > 
three are the Reaumur, introduced in 1730, the •— 
Fahrenheit, in 1749, and the Celsius, in 1742. The ^ 
first is commonly used in Russia and the north of "2 
Germany, the Fahrenheit in England, her colonies, * 
and the United States ; and the last, commonly 
called the Centigrade, in France and the portion 
of Europe not previously mentioned. In the Fah- 
renheit scale the freezing point is 32 , and the boil- 
ing point 212 , so that the intervening space is 
divided into 212 — 32, or 180 equal parts or degrees. 
In the others the freezing point is the zero, but in 
the Reaumur scale the boiling point is 8o°, and in 
the Centigrade ioo 1 '. 

As a variety of circumstances arise in which it 
becomes necessary to convert readings from one 
scale into those of the other, the following rules are 
given : 

1. To convert Centigrade degrees into degrees 
of Fahrenheit, multiply by 9, divide the product 
by 5 and add 32. 

2. To convert Fahrenheit degrees into degrees 
of Centigrade, subtract 32, multiply by 5, and di- 
vide by 9. 

3. To convert Reaumur degrees into degrees of Fahrenheit, 
multiply by 9, divide by 4, and add 32. 

4. To convert Reaumur degrees into degrees of Centigrade, multi- 
ply by 5 and divide by 4. 



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THE HYGROMETER. 

The amount of moisture in the air is measured by the hygrometer. 
The consideration that a certain amount of moisture in the air is neces- 
sary to the continuance of health suggests the advantage of maintaining 
a due proportion in the atmosphere of sick rooms, where the artificial 
heat, so often injudiciously used, disturbs the healthful hygrometic condi- 
tion of the air. By this instrument the amount of aqueous vapour held in 



METEOROLOGICAL INSTRUMENTS. 



the air is effectually indicated, and by it many hints, which, if acted 
on, would prove of great value to the patient, may be obtained. 

Hygrometers are based on three principles, indicating the presence of 
moisture by absorption, condensation, or evaporation. By the first class 
of instruments the indications are the result of the contraction or expan- 
sion of prepared human hair, oatbeard, catgut, seaweed, grass, &c. 
By the second class, the moisture is condensed on bright polished silver 
or glass surfaces. By the third class, the moisture is indicated through 
the evaporation of fluid in a bulb in proportion to the degrees of air. 

THE RAIN GAUGE. 

The pluriometer, or rain gauge, as its name indicates, is an instru- 
ment used for measuring the amount of rain which falls upon a given 
area during a certain space of time. An easily constructed rain gauge 
sometimes used, is a tub, or bucket with a thin edge, which is placed 
in a horizontal position for catching the rain, whose depth may after- 
wards be measured by a graduated rod. The more common method, 
however, is to catch the rain fall in an accurately made funnel, from 
whence it flows into a receiver of any shape. It is then either measured 
by Weight or by means of a tall graduated cylinder, which gives the 
average depth of the rain -fall. 

The rain gauge whose picture is given is one of the latter class. It 
is intended to be partly sunk in the soil to keep the contents perfectly 

cool, and the receiving 
surface of the funnel, ac- 
curately turned to a di- 
ameter of eight inches, 
terminates at its lower ex- 
tremity in a curved tube, 
which, by always retain- 
ing the last few drops of 
rain, prevents evaporation. 
The graduated vessel in 
which the depth of the 
fall is measured in this 
instance is divided to 
iooths of an inch, having 
due regard to the larger 
area of the funnel. 

It is difficult to employ 

a rain gauge to measure 

a snow fall, unless the air 

is perfectly still, as the 

wind interferes with the 

snow's reception. An easy 

and fairly satisfactory 

rain gauge. method of obtaining the 

snow fall is, after a snow 

storm, to take a cylindrical vessel of sufficient depth, and with it cut 

out a section of the snow from some place where it has fallen evenly. 







METEOROLOGICAL INSTRUMENTS. 



99 



The snow thus obtained may be melted, or dissolved in a known quan- 
tity of water, and the depth of the fall thus obtained. 

Much care must be exercised in the placing of rain guages. They 
should not be placed in the neighborhood of trees and buildings, nor on 
the tops of isolated buildings. The standard position of the mouth of 
the gauge is from eight to sixteen inches above a broad level lawn. 

The value of the rain gauge is well indicated by Luke Howard, in 
his " Climate of London." He says : — " It must be a subject of great 
satisfaction and confidence to the husbandman to know, at the begin- 
ning of a summer, by the certain evidence of meteorological results on 
record, that the season, in the ordinary course of things, may be ex- 
pected to be a dry and warm one, or to find, in a certain period of it, 
that the average quantity of rain to be expected for the month has fallen. 
On the other hand, when there is reason, from the same seurce of in- 
formation, to expect much rain, the man who has courage t o begin his 
operations under an unfavorable sky, but with good ground to conclude, 
from the state of his instruments and his collateral knowledge, that a 
fair interval is approaching, may often be profiting by his observations, 
while his cautious neighbor, who waited for the weather to settle, may 
find that he has let the 
opportunity go by. This 
superiority, however, is 
attainable by a very 
moderate share of appli- 
cation to the subject, 
and by keeping a plain 
diary of the barometer 
and rain guage, with the 
hygrometer and vane, 
under his daily notice." 

THE WIND GAUGE. 

The anemometer, or 

wind gauge, is an instru- 
ment used for measur- 
ing the force of the wind. 
One or the earliest forms 
consisted of a glass sy- 
phon, whose limbs are 
parallel to each other, 
and mounted on a verti- 
cal rod, on which it free- 
ly oscillates by the action 
of the vane which sur- 
mounts it. The upper 
end of one limb of the 
syphon is bent outward 
at right angles to the 
main direction, and the 
action of the vane keeps LINd's anemometer. 




IOO 



METEOROLOGICAL INSTRUMENTS. 




depresses it in the 
the other, and the 
elevation is the 
water the wind is 
the time of obser- 
in the syphon at the 
the jumping effect 
which would other- 
gusts of wind, 
engraving of which 
class, and the fol- 
force of wind on a 
ent heights of the 
by it. Six inches 
31.75 lbs. to the 
cane ; 5 inches, 
violent storm ; 4 
sure, a great storm ; 
sure, a storm ; 2 
sure, a strong wind ; 
a high wind ; .5 
brisk wind ; . 1 inch, 
breeze ; .05 inch, 
breeze ; 0, a calm, 
will have seen four 
as are shown in the 
ing rapidly or slow- 



this open end of the tube towards the quarter from whence the wind 
blows. Between the limbs of the syphon is a scale graduated from to 
3 in inches and 10 lbs., the zero being the centre of the scale. When the 

instrument is used, 
it is only neces- 
sary to fill the 
tube with water 
to the zero of the 
scale and then ex- 
pose it to the wind. 
The force of the 
wind on the water 
one limb and raises it in 
depression and consequent 
height of the column of 
capable of sustaining at 
vation. The contraction 
lower bend is to prevent 
on the water in the tube 
wise be caused by sudden 
Lind's anemometer, an 
is given, is one of this 
lowing table shows the 
square foot for the differ- 
. column of water as shown 
represents a pressure of 
square inch, or a hurri- 
26.04 lbs. pressure, a 
inches, 20.83 lbs. pres- 
3 inches, 15.62 lbs. pres- 
inches, 10.42 lbs. pres- 
I inch, 5.21 lbs. pressure, 
inch, 2.60 lbs. pressure, a 
.52 lb. pressure, a fresh 
.261b. pressure, a gentle 
Many of our readers 
hemispherical cups, such 
second engraving, revolv- 
ly, as the case may be, in 
or near places where science has its resting place. They are portions 
of the anemometer now most commonly used. It consists of four hemi- 
spherical copper cups attached to two horizontal metal arms in such a 
manner that their concave surfaces face all one way. The vertical axis 
upon which these are secured has at its lower extremity an endless 
screw, whose motion causes a toothed wheel to revolve, by which the 
record of the wind's force is kept. 

The cups (measuring from their centres) revolve with one-third of 
the wind's velocity, and due allowance is made in graduating the indi- 
cating dials, so that the true velocity is obtained by direct observa- 
tion. 




WIND GA.UGE. 



IOI 



>-3 



?P 







■-.--_ - ^o«iA«^. ^s^VV^ 



102 



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It will deteot and 
in adva !'■' . It will tell « jih *iuu i 
it cornea— invaluable to navigators, 
predictio ns. It will sa ve Hf t v t i me a 
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; 187 PAGES. 

its names indicates, treats of the best 
___. „_ _. . ,_ serve health. Its instructions are based 
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following are some of the opinions of medical men in regard 

'rofessor of Midwifery and Diseases of 

College, Montreal :^— 

_ i ^J|&lKt(teK^^end()rse the views so ably 

ing, as they do, upon a sound physiological: and 

've the attention of every parent in the 



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JOHN DOUGALL & SON, MONTREAL. 



J. L. Leprohon, M.I)., Professor of Sanitary Science, University 
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" If they [ladies] will only adopt some of the practical rules thus 
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J. Emery C 

Montreal :— 

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it will produce in society the most happy e 
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manner of dressing and the disastrous effects o 
The abuses which are described are in gre 
sickness and feebleness of young people, as we 
with regret premature qld age. " <r * I earnei 
read by those who desire to preserve their 
daughters, and that th.-v put into practice tl 
laid down by the authors for the moral and ph 



Professor Victoria Medical College, 



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effects. Being essentially 
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f the fashions of the day. 
at part the cause of the 
'11 as of mothers, who see 
stly recommend it to be 
health and that of their 
le wise and salutary rules 
vsical health of women." 




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H, 'INK 

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198 PAGE8 



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JANUARY COLD SNAPS AT TORONTO. IO9 f 

JANUARY COLD SNAPS AT TORONTO. t 



A Toronto correspondent writes : " As it may be interesting to 
some of the readers of your Almanac, whether as hints for probabilities, 
or as a mere retrospect of past Januaries, I give the following records of 
cold snaps, under which head I include all those periods in which the 
thermometer ranged at, near or below zero, at 8 o'clock a.m. : 



J January 

1 of year. 

t 1*55— 23, 24, 25. 

I 1 856—8, 9, 10, 1 1 ; 20, 21 ; 25, 26. 

\ 1857—6, 7, 8 ; 11, 17, 18, 22, 25. 

i 1858— Up to 27ih very little ice in Bay ; 
frozen on 31st. 

* 1859—8, 9, 10, but Bay open on 28th. 

t 1860— 1st (10 o below), then mild to 

i 31st, 4° below. 

t 1861—10, 11, 12, 13; Bay frozen. 

4 1862—3, 4, 5; 13, 14, 15; but Bay 

1 cleaved on 15th. 

I 1863— Bay clear till 16th ; 17th 8 <=> below 

zero. 

t 1864—8,9; 21,22. 

t 1865-7, 8, 9 ; 16, 17, 18, 19. 

♦ 1866—4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9. 



January • 
of t ear. 

1867—15, 16, 17, 18, 19 ; 29. t 

1868—12, 13, 14 ; 22 ; 27, 28, 29. \ 

1869—22, 25 ; mild up to 18th ; saw a { 

pansy plucked in "bloom in open air 1 

on 30th. I 

1870—9; 14; rest of month mild. • 

1871—7 ; 22. 24, 25. - J 

1872—7, 8; 29. I 

1873—18. 25, 29. t 

1874— Mild or moderate till 30th; 2o i 

below zero. i 

1875— ID, 11, 12; followed by coldest I 

February known here. I 
1876— Mild or moderate all through. 

1877—3, 8, 9, 12 ; so far gloomy. t 



+ " I observe from my records that our January cold snaps have al- + 

\ most invariably been soon followed by snow-storms. That it ■ always ♦ 

moderates to snow ' is an old and very true weather proverb, which t 

might long ago have dissipated the delusion that the source of these 1 

supplies of moisture is to the eastward. Were this the fact, we should f 

see very little moderation of temperature resulting, and, indeed, we 1 

should see very little precipitation of either snow or rain, for the North t 

Atlantic gives off a very inadequate quantity to meet our wants, and | 

long before that little could reach us, driven by a north-east or east f 

wind, it would be all appropriated by Labrador, Eastern Canada, or f 

New England. But almost everybody believes our snow and rain t 

storms come from eastward because they come with eastern winds. j 

The stratum of east wind is, however, a mere surface current — an inci- i 

dent of the storm — not the real snow or rain carrier ; that runs above \ 

the eastern wind, and almost always in an opposite direction. I have, t 

from a most advantageous position, watched the ingress of scores of | 

rain and snow storms, but never yet have I detected one advancing j 

from eastward ; yet when they have fully set in, ninety-nine persons f 

out of every hundred would swear they had come from the eastward, t 

But if this were the fact, why should it snow at Detroit or Cleveland t 

before Toronto ? Why at Toronto before Kingston or Montreal, and I 

at Montreal before Quebec ? I have anticipated many a rain and snow \ 

storm by twelve, twenty-four, or even thirty-six hours, warned by the t 

persistent eastern fore-blow ; and when at length they approached, I t 

have seen them crossing from the Grimsby shore over the lake and 1 

landing on our side ; but having once begun to fall on us, the flakes or { 

drops have all obeyed the force of the surface current through which \ 

they fell from the upper cloud field, t 

"For a very sufficient reason 'it always moderates to snow.' It 
would, however, be more correct to say the snow brings the modera- 



IJ 



HO TWO MILD FEBRUARIES. 

■ — — — — , t 

tion. It is formed from vapour sent to us from warm regions, and f 

where evaporation is ever active and abundant. When this vapour is t 

carried over a frozen region, or arrives at one, it falls in the form of t 

snow ; when a contrary condition exists it falls in rain. ] 

" Many of our winter cold snaps are of only brief duration. In + 

the course of twenty-four, or even twelve hours, we may see the ther- ♦ 

mometer plunge down 35 or 40 degrees, as it did on the night of Janu- i 

ary nth, 1877. Sometimes, when it thus precipitately descends, it as • 

rapidly re-ascends, even to a higher point than it held before. ; 



TWO MILD FEBRUARIES— 1877 and 1834. \ 

It has occurred to me that many of your readers would be inter- ♦ 

ested in an account of the winter of 1833-4, more particularly as the I 

month of February of that season was even milder, in some respects, | 

than the one which has just passed. The fall of 1833 was pleasant, + 

and ploughing was not entirely stopped by frost until about the 20th of \ 

November. Steady frost set in about that time, and snow fell in sum- t 

cient quantity on the 6th December to make sleighing. The fore part * 

of the winter was steady but mild, and the St. Lawrence was not frozen ; 

over so that teams could cross until the 18th of January. There was ♦ 
one week of cold weather, the thermometer reaching to 18 below zero. 

February set in mild, and there was almost constant thaw until near 1 

the end of the month, and in the third week snow had nearly disap- ; 

peared. There were two thunder-storms in February. One on the ♦ 

20th prevailed over the Province, and did much damage. On the 24th ! 

crows and flies made their appearance. On the 26th there was a fall J 

of snow sufficient to make sleighing until the 4th of March. Mild \ 

weather again set in, and the frost began to leave the ground. On the { 

13th we began to prepare ground for a garden by removing stones and ♦ 

stumps. Green blades of grass began to appear, and sheep and young 1 

cattle found themselves food, and the rivers also were free of ice. On * 

the 20th March there was a severe thunder-storm with heavy rain, ♦ 

which raised the rivers. On the 21st fiost again set in, and on the ♦ 

25th there was a fall of snow, which lay a day or two. Warm weather j 

again set in on the 30th, and on the 3rd of April frogs were heard * 

croaking for the first time, and the woods began to be enlivened by the i 

music of the birds. On the 1st April the steamboat " Franklin " com- \ 

menced running from St. Johns to Lake Champlain. The steamer t 

"Chateauguay" also began her regular trips from Chateauguay Basin * 

to Lachine early in April. Ploughing was now general, and some were I 

sowing. Mosquitos made their appearance about }he 7th, and the ♦ 

weather was so warm that fires were not needed. The roads became 1 

dry and good, and all the month of April continued fine. There was • 

thunder several times, and also a few flurries of snow. By the 21st i 

vegetation was far advanced, and many trees were nearly in full leaf — f 

even the maple ; wheat was above ground, and pools of water full of t 

fadpoles. In the first week of May there was thunder and occasionally t 

trost. On the 13th there was snow, and on the 14th it snowed for ten i 






hours. On the morning of the 15 th there was severe frost, ice on pools 
being about half an inch thick. No harm resulted from the frost, as 
the snow protected vegetation. It was a dry, hot summer, and an 
early harvest, but the crop was tolerably good. 

F. W. S. 
Huntington, 15th March, 1877. 



General Rules and Laws for Storms, Wind and Wea- 
ther. — 1st. For all meteoric observations on large bodies of land in 
the temperate zones fix yourself with face looking towards the main 
sea or ocean. 2nd. If the wind is blowing on your face at the rate of 
only four to eight miles an hour, rain is not apt to be present, as the 
atmosphere will likely be expanding and absorbing water and convert- 
ing it into vapor, and holding it suspended in the air until the proper 
planetary phenomena transpire. 3rd. If the wind is moving at the rate 
of ten to fifteen miles an hour it is probably passing to a rain, hail or 
snow-storm farther inland, and you will likely find the barometer fall- 
ing. 4th. If it is moving at the rate of twenty to thirty miles an hour, 
it is likely passing further inland to a more violent rain, hail or snow 
precipitation. If it is moving at forty to sixty miles an hour it is prob- 
ably blowing further inland to a waterspout, hurricane or tornado, etc. 
5th. When you find the wind turned round (about 180 degrees) and 
blowing on your back, the storm has passed you, and it is on its way 
towards the sea, and you will be apt to find the barometer rising. 6th. 
If the wind turns partially around (about 90 degrees) and blows on your 
right and off your left, the storm is then supposed to pass by your left 
on its way towards the sea. If the wind should turn the other way 
around (about 90 degrees) and blow on your left and off your right, 
then the storm is likely passing by the way of your right towards the 
sea. The wind often moves from all quarters to the point of precipi- 
station. There is frequently a kind of short lull in front of travelling 
storms. There are mild local rains caused by slow changing positions 
of the planets, etc. By noting these rules and watching the barometer 
the course and severity of storms may soon be tolerably well under- 
stood, even for great distances from the observer. 



Forests and Rainfall. — The relation between woodlands and 
rain -fall and other climatic conditions has of late been the subject of 
much dogmatic theorizing. A comparison of maps in Walker's " Sta- 
tistical Atlas of the United States " shows that the forests in Washing- 
ton Territory have an annual rain-fall of 60 inches and upward. The 
magnificent forests found from Minnesota to Maine have a rain-fall 
precisely identical with that of the nearly treeless prairies which extend 
westward from Chicago, viz. , from 28 to 40 inches. The northern part 
of the Michigan Peninsula, with its heavy timber, is marked with pre- 
cisely the same rain-fall as large portions of southern Minnesota, lying 
in the same latitudes and nearly treeless. 



—»-♦- »■»■». + . 



.».♦.»■♦■». 



112 THE MOON AND THE WEATHER. \ 

^ f 

THE MOON AND THE WEATHER. \ 

The notion that the moon exerts an influence on weather is so \ 

deeply rooted that, notwithstanding all the attacks which have been t 

made against it since meteorology has been seriously studied, it contin- t 

ues to retain its hold upon many of us. And yet there never was a pop- \ 

ular superstition more utterly without a basis than this one. If the \ 

moon did really possess any power over weather, that power could t 

only be exercised in one of three ways — by reflection of the sun's rays, t 

by attraction, or by emanation. No other form of action is conceivable, i 

Now, a* the brightest light of a full moon is never equal in intensity or * 

quantity > that which is reflected towards us by a white cloud on a f 

summer day, it can scarcely be pretended that weather is affected by t 

such a cause. That the moon does exert attraction on us is manifest. ; 

We see its working in the tides ; but though it can move water it is j 

most unlikely that it can do the same to air, for the specific gravity of t 

the atmosphere is so small that there is nothing to be attracted. La- I 

place calculated, indeed, that the joint attraction of the sun and moon f 

together could not stir the atmosphere at a quicker rate than five miles * 

a day. As for lunar emanations, not a sign of them has ever been dis- I 

covered. The idea of an influence produced by the phases of the t 

moon is therefore based on no recognizable cause whatever. Further- • 

more, it is now distinctly shown that no variations at all really occur * 

in weather at the moment of the changes of quarter any more than at f 

other ordinary times. Since the establishment of meteorological sta- t 

tions all over the earth, it has been proved by millions of observations \ 

that there is no simultaneousness whatever between the supposed cause j 

and the supposed effect. The whole story is a fancy and a superstition, t 

which has been handed down to us uncontrolled, and which we have t 

accepted as true because our forefathers believed it. The moon exer- • 

cises no more influence on weather than herrings do on the govern- ; 

ment of Switzerland, — Blackwood's Magazine. ♦ 



Weather Wisdom. — " Many persons are predicting an early, ♦ 
long and severe winter. The indications are the unusual abundance of 

pine cones, the big piles of dirt the gophers are making about their \ 

holes, the unusual thickness of the corn shucks, the industry of the + 

woodpeckers in laying up stores of acorns, the early rising of the springs j 

in the mountains, and the mildness of the weather last winter." So ? 

reads a paragraph in Forest and Stream for October, at which we are • 

inclined to laugh heartily. Such indications may read any way. Who ; 

has ever seen woodpeckers gathering acorns ? These birds live entirely j 

upon insects, and keep on the wing searching for them all winter. The : 

thickness or thinness of the shucks on the corn depends entirely upon • 

the amount of sun and moisture the grain has had during the summer, ; 

and has nothing to do with the weather that is to come long after the ♦ 

harvest has been gathered indoors. As to last winter (1877) being a t 

mild one, we would answer so was the one preceding it. The poor 1 

little gopher we know nothing of in Canada, but our woodchucks are ; 

as yet making but little preparation for the winter. ♦ 



THE OREGON EARTHQUAKE OF 1877. 1 13 j 



THE OREGON EARTHQUAKE OF 1877. f 

The Portland Oregonian of Oct. 13th gives an account of an earth- \ 

quake which took place the previous afternoon. At 1.53 o'clock a ♦ 

distinct earth shock, followed in a lew seconds by another and severer • 

one, passed over the city from north to south. It was not, as is usually \ 

the case, preceded by premonitory grumblings, but came with terrify- ♦ 

ing suddenness. The scene on the principal streets, as the people be- \ 

came conscious of the cause of the agitation, was one of the wildest t 

confusion and, for a moment, of terror. From houses and stores peo- ; 

pie with white, scared faces rushed into the streets, cigars dropped from ♦ 

the mouths of smokers, horses snorted and dogs whined with fear, the ♦ 

air, as well as the earth, seemed filled with a mysterious and awful t 

power — the streets seemed turned into a mad carnival of fear. This ; 

was for one moment ; the next everybody was trying to convince every- ♦ 

body else that he " wasn't a bit scared." While the shock was very \ 
severe, or at least seemed so to Oregonians, it was not accompanied by 

loss of life or destruction of property to any great extent. A panic was ; 

created at each of the public schools, and children made for the open \ 

air without considering the manner of their going. At the North build- ♦ 

ing they rushed pell-mell down stairs, and in the turmoil several child- I 

ren were badly bruised. At the Central and High schools a similar t 

occurrence took place, and in Harrison street school the terror of the j 

children was awful. Several windows were broken, and it seemed as ♦ 
though the house would certainly fall. The shock was much harder in 

the southern part of the city, and many residences were well shaken • 

up. In the county jail, several feet below the surface, it was very se- ; 

vere, and a stove was knocked from its " moorings" and thrown over. \ 

This earthquake extended over a considerable territory. ♦ 



Weather Forecasts. — Speaking of weather predictions, Dr. t 
Johnson is reported to have said that a weather-wise man might in the t 
morning foretell what sort of weather there would be between that time . J 
and evening, but that he was powerless to predict the weather four-and- | 
twenty hours in advance. Till recently this observation remained sub- { 
stantially true ; but now, owing to the invention of the electric tele- f 
graph, and its ramification over the civilized world, the statement needs 
to be received with some modification. Formerly the meteorologist's 
field of observation was bounded by the limited horizon visible to his 
own eyes ; whereas now he may sit in his office in London and receive 
from a staff of messengers, travelling more swiftly than the swiftest 
hurricane, a series of simultaneous reports from places as far apart as 
Bergen, Gibraltar, the Texel, and Valentia. The practical result of 
these improvements is that it is now possible to issue weather warnings 
to seafaring persons and others, which are in the majority of cases ab- 
solutely verified ; and to this cause it is no doubt in some degree at- 
tributable that the remarkable storm which swept over these islands on 
the night of Sunday last, and which did so much damage on land, 
caused, in comparison with its exceeding violence, little damage by sea. 



*-♦-»-♦ - ♦ ■ ♦ . 



.-4- 



.».♦■».».». 



1 14 the st. Patrick's day cold dip. 

Mariners, having received timely warning, either sought shelter at once, 
or forebore from quitting the shelter in which they already lay. In 
enumerating some of the places from which a modern meteorologist 
receives his almost instantaneous reports, we purposely omitted to men- 
tion America, because it is doubtful whether, with our present stock of 
knowledge, an) practical inferences of value can be drawn from the 
weather phenomena of a region separated from us by an ocean nearly 
three thousand miles wide. The storm from New York, which was 
predicted to reach our shores on the loth inst., certainly did not visit 
us on that day, which was remarkably calm ; but at the same time it 
is possible that the great gale of Sunday night was part of the same 
convulsion, although it had been delayed four days on the road. — Lon- 
don Graphic^ Oct, 



THE ST. PATRICK'S DAY COLD DIP. 

An Elora paper says : " Vennor was safe in predicting a cold dip 
in the neighborhood of St. Patrick's Day. A gentleman in Toronto 
who makes weather notes informs us that a fall in the thermometer to 
the zero line has occurred about the date of the equinox in nearly every 
one of the last twenty-three years, and a gentleman in Elora gives us 
the following markings of lowest thermometer in March since 1869 : 

1874 — March 12, 3 below zero. 
*i8 75 - " 23, io° 

1876— " 18, 5 

1877— " 17, 16 
19th, 21st and 22nd. 



1869- 


-March 


16, 


5° below 


zero. 


1870- 


- " 


19, 


4° 


< 




1871- 


_ a 


19, 


8° 


* 




1872- 


*( 


20, 


20° 


1 








* 


Below 


zero 


10th, 



Modern Philosophers and Lightning Rods. — Leading 

I philosophers comment on and teach the theory of the earth (sun and 

'i other planets) as parting with heat by radiation. The lightning rod 

♦ vendor fixes the point of his conductor in the air over the building that 

♦ is to be protected, and locates the other end of the rod in the earth 

♦ beneath to receive the lightning or electric discharge from the air above. 
I By this mode we see the lightning rod man acting consistently with the 
I laws of nature, but he does not appear to understand for what reason 
t he does this ; while, to harmonize with the theory- of modern philos- 
t ophy, he should invert his conductors by setting the points that are to 
I collect the wild electricity in the earth, and spread fan-like radiators 

♦ above or over the buildings at the other end of the rod to radiate the 
t electricity from the earth and houses into space. If the earth parted 
t with its heat loosely by radiation, the heat liberated from the clouds by 

♦ the condensation of the vapours should pass out into space. But this 

♦ is not nature's plan. The electricity is absorbed by the solid earth 
\ from the vapor, though it does not appear to be understood this way as 
t yet. But time does much. — Prof. MansilL 

I 



USE OF BIRDS TO THE FARMER. II5 



Use of Birds to the Farmer. — The swallow, swift and night- J 

hawk are the guardians of the atmosphere. They check the increase ; 

of insects that otherwise would overload it. . Woodpeckers, creepers { 

and chicadees are the guardians of the trunks of trees ; warblers and ♦ 

flycatchers protect the foliage ; blackbirds, thrushes, crows and larks t 

protect the surface of the soil ; snipe and woodcock the soil under the 1 

surface. Each tribe has its respective duties to perform in the economy f 

of nature, and it is an undoubted fact that if the birds were all swept t 

off from the earth man could not live upon it ; vegetation would wither t 

and die, and insects would become so numerous that no living thing ? 

could withstand their attacks. The wholesale destruction occasioned f 

by the grasshoppers which have lately devastated the West is undoubt- f 

edly caused by the thinning out of the birds, such as grouse, prairie- t 

hens, &c, which feed upon them. The great and inestimable service | 

done to the farmer, gardener anTl florist by the birds is only becoming * 

known by sad experience. Spare the birds and save your fruit ; the ♦ 

little corn and fruit taken by them is more than compensated by the T 

vast quantities of noxious insects destroyed. The long persecuted crow : 

has been found, by actual experiment, to do far more good by the im- j 

mense numbers of insects he devours than the little harm he does by fc 

by the few grains of corn he pulls up. He is one of the farmer's best t 

friends. f 

I 

Aerolites — Meteoric Stones. — Unlike falling stars, which { 

become extinguished in the upper regions without noise y and without f 

leaving any trace of their existence, aerolites, or meteoric stones, reach t 

the surface of the earth. These have been met with in all parts of the | 

world, and in no one place more than another. They move with a | 

great velocity, and shine with an intensely bright light. They general- £ 

ly strike the earth in an oblique direction, and frequently with such t 

force as to bury themselves many feet in the soil. When they first fall r 

they are so hot that they have been known to turn the sand in which I 

they bury themselves into glass, coating the hole so as to form a tube f 

which could be taken out entire. They have been seen to explode at t 

the height of thirty and forty miles. Meteoric stones are of various t 

shapes and sizes. They have always rough edges and depressions in I 

their surfaces, and are coated with a black, shining crust, but of a gray- t 

ish color within. One that fell in the township of Madoc, Hastings : 

county, Ont. , weighed pounds ; this specimen is now in the Geo- t 

logical Museum at Montreal. Another, which fell in South America, 1 

weighed 30,000 pounds. One in Arkansas weighs 1,635 pounds ; still ♦ 

another weighs 14,000 pounds. The most remarkable masses of me- I 

teoric iron occur in the district of Chaco-Gualamba, in South America, t 

where there is one whose weight is estimated at 30,000 pounds. Be- I 

sides* nickel, which sometimes amounts to nearly 20 per cent., meteoric \ 

iron often contains small percentages of cobalt, tin, copper, and man- ♦ 

ganese, and not unfrequently nodules of magnetic iron pyrites are em- t 

bedded in the mass. Meteoric iron is perfectly malleable, and may be I 

worked like manufactured iron. Specimens of native iron, intimately I 



mixed with rock, have been found at Portage du Fort, on the Ottawa 
river, but whether these represent terrestrial native iron or iron ore 
altered by artificial means is not yet satisfactorily determined. Many 
theories have been propounded to account for the origin of meteoric 
stones. Laplace supposed that they were projected from volcanoes in 
the moon, and falling within the attraction of the earth, were drawn to 
its surface ; but this does not account for their great velocity. More- 
over, from the large number falling on the earth, the moon itself would 
soon be reduced to a mere meteor, and fall like the rest. Others have 
given them a terrestrial origin. Chladni supposes that they are small 
bodies circulating around the sun, which coming within the earth's 
attraction, are drawn to it, and become heated and ignited by the fric- 
tion occasioned by their rapid motion through our atmosphere. The 
previously dark and invisible meteor becomes luminous, and the ignited 
and incandescent particles becoming detached from the main mass form 
a glowing train of light behind the aerolite. This is the theory now 
generally received, and which more nearly accounts for all their phe- 
nomena. 



I Rain-fall and Solar Spots. — Of late there has been some in- 

| terest shown in the supposed relation between the periodicity of rain- 
| fall and the periodicity of solar spots. The researches of scientists seem 
J to show that there is a very close connection between solar disturbances 

5' and terrestrial phenomena ; a marked correspondence being observed be- 
tween magnetic and electric disturbances on the earth and the occur- 
rence of spots on the sun. A periodicity of cyclones in the Indian 
, Ocean is also connected with a similar periodicity of solar spots. A 
t corresponding change of atmospheric temperature and solar spots has 
I also been noted, and it has been found that more rain falls in years of 
4 maxima solar spots than in minima solar spot years, showing that here, 
i as well as everywhere else, the sun exerts an influence. 



Goose-Bone Weather Predictions. — The goose-bone is 
more closely watched in Kentucky than in any other part of the coun- 
try. It has been handed down among the early traditions of the State, 
and may be called the Kentucky weather prophet. It is to be found 
in most Kentucky country homes, and in many parts of the State the 
farmers consult it, and prepare for handling their crops in accordance 
with its readings. The prophecy of the goose-bone does not extend 
beyond the year in which the goose was hatched, and the prediction is 
♦ for the three winter months only. Take the breast bone of a last 
; spring's goose and divide it into three equal parts, and the different 
| divisions will represent December, January and February. The breast 
; bone of a goose is translucent, and if clear when held up to the light, 
| the weather will be mild and pleasant ; but if covered with cloud-like 

! blots it will be gloomy and cold ; the heavier the blots the colder will 
be the weather. 

A study of this year's goose-bone indicates that the weather for 



Hail — Droughts and Rains. 117 j' 

December will be cloudy and gloomy, probably with much rain and 
snow, not very cold, but, withal, a very disagreeable month. About 
the last of December we shall have some cold weather, which will con- 
tinue to grow colder as January advances. The month of January will 
be a cold one throughout, with some very severe weather during the 
last part of the month. On the prophecy of the goose-bone, it may be 
predicted that about the last of January we will have the coldest wea- 
ther experienced for a number of years. February will be more pleas- 
ant and spring-like, betokening an early return of the flowers. During 
the last of the month, however, there will be a few cold days, but no 
severe weather. 

Such is the prophecy of the goose-bone, and as we have the word 
of a good old farmer up in Woodford county that it has not failed for 
fifty years, we may as well prepare to meet it, and need not be surprised 
if we have good skating on the Ohio river during the latter part of Jan- 
uary. — Louisiille Commercial, 1876. 



Hail. — As a general rule, hailstorms occur at the close of long 
periods of calm, hot and sultry weather. They are immediately pre- 
ceded by a fall of the barometer, and, what is unusual before rain, a 
corresponding fall of the thermometer. The thermometer, during a 
hailstorm, has been known to sink through 77 ° Fahr. As a rule, hail 
clouds are not so high as rain clouds, while the area of hailstorms fre- 
quently extends over great distances in a linear direction. Their breadth 
is seldom very great. The motion is rapid, often forty miles an hour. 
A peculiar rustling sound in the air often precedes the fall of hail. This 
is accompanied by a darkness similar to a total eclipse of the sun. 
Hailstorms are seldom of long duration ; from three or four minutes to 
a quarter of an hour is the usual limit. 



Droughts and Rains.— -During long, hot, dry terms of weather 
in medium latitudes, or at distances from the sea, the vapors are carried 
over or past them, and condensed in the more northern latitudes, or 
farther from the ocean. Medium latitudes from the sea receive a fair 
share of rain in moderate seasons. During long cold intervals the va- 
pors are in all likelihood condensed before reaching far north or inland 
from the ccean. — MansiWs Almanac. 



Things not Generally Known. — Caterpillars never produce 
young ; flies, bees, etc., never grow larger after their escape from the 
cocoon. Most people suppose that the little flies that we see around 
are the same kind as the large ones, only younger ; but the fact is that 
they are the same size as when hatched out from the cocoon. 




FREE HOMESTEADS 

ON THE ENGLISH RESERVE, 

Province of Manitoba, Dominion of Canada. 



The success that has attended the introduction into England of Canadian oattle, 

. horses, beef and mutton, has naturally directed the attention of many young and 

\ enterprising farmers to our great transatlantic colony. The English farmer,highly taxed 

\ and highly rented, with a rising labor market and a falling cattle and dairy market, 

& finds every year his profits less and his expenses greater. Canada used to send to Great 

r Britain little else but grain and timber. Now she sends butter, cheese, meat (both 

^ living and dead), horses, poultry and game. As a necessary result Canadian farmers 

tf are thriving as they never throve before. The competition that has so greatly 

g injured their English brethren has enriched them. Their laud is generally their otto, 

\ and they have neither rent, income tax, nor poor-rates to pay. 

\ Why should not English farmers and farmers' sons relinquish a losing struggle at 

C home aud share in this prosperity by transferring themselves, their families, capital, 

r energy and skill to the rich prairie lands of British North America ? The Canadian 

# Government is doing its utmost to facilitate this object. It has reserved for settlement 

$ by British farmers in the Prairie Province of Manitoba, four townships, called the 

A Cheshire District, from its likeness to Cheshire County, containing over 76,000 acres 

\ of fertile land, on which Homesteads of 160 acres, the settler's choice, are now 

\ offered to actual settlers entirely free of cost, except an office fee of two guineas. 

C After living for three years on the land the 3ettler receives a deed direct from 

r the Crown. If he desires more land than 160 acres, he can purchase what k he 

ff requires at reasonable prices according to situation, the ordinary rate being One 

d Dollar, or 4s. 2d. per acre, payable in instalments. The reserve is situated at the 

\ south-west corner of Lake Manitoba, on which it has a frontage of six miles. It is 

\ bounded on the west for eighteen miles by a large natural meadow, where praotically 

\ inexhaustible supplies of excellent hay can be procured by settlers, at the mere cost of 

tf cutting and carrying home. It is well supplied with water in small ponds and streams, 

<r and three belts of timber, besides numerous clumps, suitable for fuel and buildiug 

g purposes, cross it transversely. The mouth of the White Mud River, the only harbor 

3 at the southern end of the lake, which must be at an early day the chief commercial 

\ centre of that fertile district, is within its limits. It muse erelong be the terminus of 

* a railway connecting Lake Manitoba with the City of Winnipeg, from which it is 
\ distant about seventy miles. The villages of Totogon, Palestine and Westbourne are 
tf two, five and eight miles distant. These villages already contain Mills, Post Ofiices, 
i Schools, Churches, etc., and are surrounded by extensive and flourishing settlements. 
$ The Reserve, anyl indeed the whole country, is very healthy. Most of the laud is rolling 
J prairie, and from the abundance of wood, water and bay, the Reserve is admirably 

a adapted for stock-raising. Settlers already on the reserve have raised excellent 

\ crops of wheat, barley, and other grain. Potatoes and other root crops have beeu found 

C to succeed capitally. The hop grows luxuriantly, while grapes, currants, raspberries, 

< strawberries and plums are found in prodigious quantities. Lake Manitoba abounds 
$ with splendid fish — sturgeon, whitebsh, pike, black bass— and all kinds of water 
$ fowl. Deer, prairie chicken, and other game are found on its shores in great numbers. 
£ Government pamphlets describing the Province, information regarding the 

* reserve, and rates of passage can be obtained by applying (with stamp to prepay 
j* return postage) to the lion. William Annand, Canadian Agent-General, London, E. C, 
« or to any of the Agents of the Allan Line of Steamers; Mr. George Hastie, Royal 

< Institution, Edinburgh, N. B. ; Mr. John Woodward, The Haymarket, Birkenhead; or 
i to B. Taylor, Esq., Souvenir House, Peterborough. 

# Each family or settler, to ensure success, should have on arrival in Manitoba at 
A least £100. Farm laborers without means will not succeed. So as to get on the 

land in time to raise a crop the same season, the month of March is the proper date to 

\ start. As large a party as can get ready should as.iemblo in Liverpool so as te sail by 

\ the steamer starting first after the 5th of March, which steamer will be met on its 

# arrival at its destination by an experienced and careful man, who will accompany the 
$ settlers to, and settle them on the land. The whole journey, with possibly the 



who cannot start in March may follow the first week of May. 

All enquiries accompanied by a 3d. stamp fully answered; and descriptive pam- 
phlet and large colored sheet map supplied post free for 1*. 6d. in English stamps, by 

A. SPENCER JONES & ARCHIBALD YOUNG, 

Manitoba Land Office, 

Toronto, Canada, 



MONTREAL. 




J. G. Parks, 

PHOTOGRAPHER 



AND 

JBLISHBR OF 



PUBLISHER 

LANTERN SLIDES, &c. 



SIX FIRST PRIZES were awarded to Mr. Parks at the last 
Provincial Exhibition. 

Mr. Parks has the old negatives taken by Mr. Inglis on St. James 
Street. 

Mr. Parks has a good portrait of the late T. L. Hackett, murdered 
in Montreal on the Twelfth of July, on which he has secured a 
copyright. Price, card, 15 cents each, or $1.50 per dozen, by mail free ; 
Cabinet, 30 cents, or $3.00 per dozen. 

Mr. Parks has a large assortment of Stereoscopic and large Photo- 
graphic Views, Lantern Slides, &c. Liberal discount to the trade. 
Catalogue sent free. 
Give him a call if you need something in the photographic line. 



«!♦ G. PARKS, 
1954 ST. JAMES STREET, 

MONTREAL, 



/<^'W'V^ /; W^^» fl 5to < ^B^^ 



©HI 




9> 



ST. LOUIS STREET, Quebec. 



The Russell Hotel Company, 

Proprietors. 



J. & J. WOODLEY, 

WHOLESALE 
MANUFACTURERS, 

23 ST. JOACHIM 5TEEET, 

QUEBEC. | 



QUEBEC, HALIFAX AND MONTREAL. I 2 1 

LANGLOIS, ANGERS, LARUE & ANGERS, 



105, FOOT OF MOUNTAIN HILL, 

QUEBEC. 

} J. LANGLOIS, Q.C. — A. R. ANGERS, Q.C. — .1. E. LARUE. — C. P. ANGERS. 

{ ^ 



\ GEO. W. JONES, 

- Forwarding, Commission and Insuranoo 

f AGENT, 

f 

| HALIFAX, N* S* 



CONSIGNMENTS SOLICITED. 

THOMAS MASON, 

Importer and Manufacturer op 

CORKS, 

Tinfoil, Capsules, Wax and Cork Soles, I 

Kos. 94 & 98 St Bcmauenture Street, 

MONTREAL. 

F 



J 

# t-*? MONTREAL. 

Canadian Birds. 



"OUR BIRDS OF PREY " 

OR THE 

Eagles, Hawks and Owls 

OF CANADA, 

WITH HO PLATES, 
BY 

HENRY G. VENNOR, F.G.S., 

I 

} Cor. Member Nuttall Ornithological Club, Cambridge, Mass. 



I 



A small edition of this most interesting book still 
on hand. 

The second vol. on the " Game Birds of Canada," 
now in preparation. 



Price, $10. 

DAWSON BROTHERS, Montreal. 
\ WORTHINGTON, Broadway, N. Y. 
\ SAMPSON, LOW & CO., Fleet Street, London, Eng. 

r 



QUEBEC. 123 



JOHN ROSS & CO., 
^W holesale Grocers, 

Produce and Commission Merchants. 
Warehouses & Office, between Hunts & Gibb's Wharves, 

ST. ANTOINE STREET, QUEBEC. 
T. <fe F. ROSS & CO., Montreal. 



F. T. THOMAS, 

Importer op 
China, Glass, Earthenware, Coal Oil, Lamps, Chandeliers, &c. 

MANUFACTURER OF 

I ROCKINGHAM AND BROWN WARE, 

I Show Rooms : 114 Mountain Hill, 

I Warehouses : 10 Des Soeurs. St., and 13 Union Lane, 

$ P.O. Box 362, QUEBEC. 



C&HHJEE, hkim &.C0., 

Engineers, Founders, Millwrights and Machinists, Builders 

of Steam Engines and Boilers for Steamboats, 

Saw and Grist Mills, &c, &C. 

Also, Manufacturers of Stoves, Ploughs, Kettles and 
all kinds of Castings to Order. 

LEVIS : Commercial Street, McKenzie's Wharf. 

QUEBEC : Nos. 102, 104, 106 & 108 St. Paul Street. 

A. LAYIGFE, 

Music Dealer and Publisher, 

AGENT FOR 

KFABE, BERDEIJ, etc., Pianofortes, and 

BUKDETT Matchless Organs, 

25 St. John St., (Saving's Bank Building,) 

QUEBEC. 



124 



HAMILTON. 




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^^v^^V^V^.^ to^frA V W 



MONTREAL. 



I2 5 



Walker, Pallascio & Co., 




f)e#|*r\ei# kr|d Sfogj&veifg or^ Wood, 
Corner of Craig and Bleury Sts., 

MONTREAL. 



I 



126 MONTREAL. 

IF^E-^XD THE 
0-A.^J^3Ll>I^L3Kr SPEOTA.TOR.. 

A high class Weekly Journal, edited by the REV. ALFRED J. BRAY. 

Annual Subscription Two Dollars. 
Offices 162 St. James Street. Montreal. 

TO ^H.IIXTTER.S. 

The only Type Foundry in British America. 

The Dominion Type Founding Company. Montreal and Toronto, manufactures a 
large variety of ihe leading descriptions *of type; and supplies Printing Presses, 
Electrotypes", Printing Inks, and every other typographic requisite. 

F. W. A. OSBORNE, Manager. 

THE MILTON LEAGUE- 

The above League has been formed to assist in the circulation of High Class 
Political and Religious Li teratuie. as and when it may appear specially needful and 
opportune. More particularly is it designed to give prominence to such writings as 
may be in danger of being obscured by the exhalations of ignorance and prejudice, or 
misrepresented by the utterances of bigotry. 

Facilities will be afforded for the publication of such political and religious cor- 
respondence as may have been refused, for mere party or denominational considera- 
tions, by the established journals. And such measures will be adopted, from time to 
time, as" may appear necessary to give increased publicity to what may be termed the 
courses and issues of active and progressive thought. 

" The Milton League is a Canadian organization, with headquarters in Montreal, 
having for its object to assist in the circulation of political and religious literature or 
the higher class, esDeciallv such as fails of having a fair field through party prejudice 
and sectarian bigotry. It particularly aims to promote the publication of such essays 
and correspondence as may otherwise, for sectional or denominational reasons, have 
failed to see the light. Auongits issues thus far are Scotch Pebblss, a collection of 
excerps from Dr. HcLeod'i writings, and three sermons by Rev. Baldwin Brown, of 
England, on the Doctrine of stnnihilation, God's Elect and Potter and Clay, Such an 
agent as this'may be of good service in days like these."— Conyregationalist. 
The MILTON LEAGUE ii represented in Canada and the United States by F. W. A. 
OSBORNE, P. 0. Box 1349, MONTREAL. 

CIVIL RIGHTS ALLIANCE. 

OBJECTS. — The constitutional resistance of the efforts of any organization to violate 
the principles of Civil Liberty ; the guidance and protection of persons whose 
rights of citzenship may be infringed by ecclesiastical or any other agenoy ; the 
liberation of national funds from the control of any religious establishment; and 
the abrogation of all public patronage, exemptions, privileges and powers which 
contravene the spirit oi religious equality. 

The means by which these methods are bein~ promoted are controlled by a 
Council and directed by an Executive, the latter being assisted by Parliamentary, 
Municipal, Educational, Law, Privileges and Finance Committees. 

^ Any person subscribing One Dollar per annum to be enrolled as a member of The 

>, Alliance, subject to the approval of the Executive. 

\ Special arrangements have been made for the formation of Branches, and the 

% friends of Civil and Religious Liberty throughout the Dominion are invited to apply 

v ' to the Secretary for particulars. 

e The administration of the Oka Defense Fund is under the direction of Thb 

# Alliance, and every new phase of the actions now in progress will be promptly 

# reported to the subscribers. 

3 Secretary, F. W. A. Osborne, 162 St. James Street, Montreal. Post Office 

> Number, 1349. 

\ Treasurer, G. S. McLaughlin, No. 480 St. Paul Street, Montreal. 



I 

MONTREAL. 127 8 

NOTHING IS IMPOSSIBLE ! 

Nothing is impossible : There are ways which 
lead to every thing ; and if we had sufficient will, 
we should always have sufficient means. 
For Cheap Blankets, go to Brady's ! 
For Cheap Flannels, go to Brady's ! 
For Cheap Tweeds, go to Brady's ! 
For Cheap Coatings, go to Brady's ! 
For Good and Cheap Winceys, go to Brady's ! 
For Stylish and Cheap Dress Goods, go to Brady's ! 
For New and Cheap Clouds, go to Brady's ! 
For Cheap Sheetings, go to Brady's ! 
For the Best and Cheapest Dry Goods, go to 

THOMAS BRADY'S, 

400 ST. JOSEPH ST., 400. 



THE FRUIT OF THE VINE. 



UNFERMENTED WINE, 

MADE FROM CANADA GRAPES, 
COIM-T^XlXrs DNTO ALCOHOL. 

FOR SACRAMENTAL AND MEDICAL USES. 
A REFRESHING AND WHOLESOME BEVERAGE. 



For sale by T. Crathern,. D. Crawford, J. H. Schneider & Co., 
Tate & Covernton, S. J. Lyman, Montreal. 

J\ IB. Tj-AJSTE, 

21 Bleury Street, Montreal, 

has constantly on hand all the leading Magazines, Monthly, Weekly 
and Daily Papers, Books, Stationery, Chromos, Stereoscopic Views, 
Purses, Bibles, Prayer Books, &c, &c. 3,000 Second-hand Books to 
pick from. Second-hand Books bought, sold and exchanged. Received, 
a new lot of the celebrated Chromo Motto. Back numbers of 
Magazines, 5c. each. Remember the address, 



COUNTRY DEALERS SUPPLIED. 



i 128 



TORONTO — KINGSTON. 




STOWE'S 

Toilet Preparations, 

THE BEST IN THE DOMINION. 

lioso Bloom Wash. 

Removes freckles, tan, moth and pimples, and renders the skin clear, 
soft and brilliant. Discolorations from Erysipelas, Salt Rheum and 
other diseases of skin entirely cured by its use. 

Every Lady should use it. Price $1 per bottle. 



HARVEST HAIR WASH. 

Made from products of harvest, and entirely free from silver, sulphur 
and lead. It destroys the fungus which develops at the roots of hair, 
turning it prematurely gray. It invigorates the hair follicles, cures all 
diseases of the scalp, and rewards its user by a rich and luxuriant 
growth of hair. Price $1 per bottle. 

The above preparations are sold by druggists, agents, and at 1 u 
Church street, Toronto. 



T. McAULEY. 




King Street, Kingston. 

FULL SUPPLY, 

LARGE STOCK, 

GOOD GOODS, 

AT CHEAP RATES. 

Wholesale and Retail. 

THE CHEAPEST PLACE in KINGSTON for SCHOOL BOOKS. 
Agent for Vennor's Almanac. 



~i 



KINGSTON, I29 



Tinsmiths, Plumbers, Coppersmiths, 

Bell Hangers, Steam and Gas Fitters. Dealers in 



And House Furnishing Hardware. 

Heating buildings by steam, hot water or hot air made a specialty. 
NO. J32 BROCK STREET, 

Kingston, Ont. 

W. W. CHOWN, 

Agricultural Implement Warehouse, 

MARTIN'S BUILDINGS, PRINCESS STREET, 

KINGSTON, ONT, 

AGENT FOR 

Frost & Wood Mowers, Reapers, 

Horse Rakes, Gang Ploughs, Ploughs, &c. 

—ALSO,— 

STRAW CUTTERS, GRAIN CRUSHERS, 

SEED DRILLS, 

j! CIDER MILLS, AND THE WEAVER TURBTNE WATER 
j> WHEEL, FANNING MILLS AND SEPARATORS. 



I 



JAS. A. SKINNER & Co., 

IMPORTERS OF 

Crockery, Glassware, Lamp Goods, &c„ 

HAMILTON, ONT. 

liiBli illlSf, 

Produce and 

DEALER IN ALL KINDS OF COUNTRY PRODUCE. 
No. 1. Market Street, 

HAMILTON, CUSTT. 

A. M. FORSTER, 

MANUFACTURER OF 

Engineers' & Plumbers' Brass $oo6s 

SPECIALTIES : 

FORSTER'S PATENT BOILER PURGER, VACUUM LUBRI- 
CATORS, FLUE CLEANERS, AUTOMATIC STEAM 
TRAPS, AND PARLOR FOUNTAINS. 
173 and 175 St. James St. North, Hamilton, Ont. 

C. MITCHELL, 

MANUFACTURER AND DEALER IN 

JkHB WILLOW WjyRil, 

Cordage, Twines, Mats, &c. 

NO. 5 BAY STREET, HAMILTON, ONTARIO. 




TORONTO AND HAMILTON. 



131 



BATHS I 

^ledtrid, gtdpltiif and ¥ufki#i 8ktl$ 

AT 

A. NORMAN'S, No. 4_Queen St, East, Toronto. 

GALVANIC AND MAGNETIC BELTS, &c. 

Great Devonshire Cattle Food 

May be relied on as containing no copperas or other metallic 
substance, and is unquestionably the only scientific combination to 
produce a healthy, salable and working condition in horses, and 
fattening cattle to a degree produced by no other feeder, shown by 
the successful exportation of cattle to England fed with the GREAT 
DEVONSHIRE FOOD. 

4®-Ask for the Devonshire and take no other. 
Beware of Worthless Imitations. Price $\. 00 per Box. 

SOLE MANTTFACTUREK, 

JOHff LUMBERS, 101 Adelaide St. East, Toronto. 




llSGRIVEN. 



Being extensively 
engaged in 

Growing Seeds 

we can offer special 
inducements to the 
trade. 

FARMERS 

and others in 
the back settle- 
ments can get 
their Seeds by 
Mail. 

Catalogues Free. 



132 



HAMILTON. 



NORTHEY'S 






ESTABLISHED 1848- 



MANUFACTURER OF 



STEAM FIRE ENGINES, 

Steam Engines and Boilers 

PATENT DOUBLE ACTING STEAM PUMPS AND BOILER 
FEEDERS, STEAM SAW MILLS, &c. 



The following is a list of the pumps we manufacture : 



AIR PUMPS, 
FIRE PUMPS, 
ACID PUMPS, 
TANK PUMPS, 
HOTEL PUMPS, 
MASH PUMPS, 
MINING PUMPS, 
POWER PUMPS, 



MARINE PUMPS, 
OIL LINE PUMPS, 
REFINERY PUMPS, 
BREWERY PUMPS, 
AIR COMPRESSORS, 
GAS COMPRESSORS, 
BOILER FEED PUMPS, 
HYDRAULIC PRESS PUMPS 



DIRECT DOUBLE ACTING COMPOUND STEAM PUMPING I 

ENGINES, WTTH OR WITHOUT CONDENSERS J 

i AND AIR PUMPS. <j! 

} 

Communications sent to Copp Brothers, or to Thomas Northey, ? 

at the works, corner of King William and Wellington streets, Hamil- & 

ton, Ont. <3 



JOHN DOUGALL & SON, MONTREAL. 133 

OUR SKATE PREMIUMS. 




THE EUREKA SKATES. 

A pair of these skates, worth $4.00, will be sent to every person 
who obtains $15 in new snbcriptions to the Witness publications, 
deducting no commission therefrom. 

A pair of Eureka Skates, worth $2.75, will be sent to every person 
who obtains $10 in new subscriptions to the Witness publications, 
deducting no commission therefrom. 




THE CANADIAN CLUB SKATE. 

A pair of these skates, worth $2.75, will be given to every person 
who obtains $9 in new subscriptions to the Witness publications, 
deducting no commission therefrom. 

Sample* copies and necessary instructions sent free on application to 
the publishers 

JOHN DOUGALL & SON, Montreal. 



GIRLS AND BOYS. 

This premium has met with great favour all over Canada. More 
than a thousand girls and boys are working for the skates. The follow- 
ing is what those who got them last year say : 

" I am delighted with them." 

" The boys that have seen them like them very much." 

" I received the skates all right, and am much pleased with them ; 
they exceed my expectations." 

" The skates are complete in every respect." 

While everybody can get such a pair op skates as these 
so easily, who will go without any ? 

Send to John Dougall & Son, Montreal, for sample copies, lists, &c. 



^j'*^^V'^^i-^^^\^V s V'^^^ 



134 MONTREAL. 






"»" mm ^00 ATUUtltW 




All kinds of Book and Job Printing is done at the Witness Office, 

WJEATJDY, CMMAJPLY & PUNCTUALLY, 

And at Low Rates. 
JOHN DOUGALL & SON, MONTREAL. 



woof) s^g^vi;K3 

AND 

DESIGNING, 

In all its branches, done at the Witness Office. 
JOHN DOUGALL & SON, MONTREAL. 

DONE SPEEDILY AND IN THE BEST STYLE, 

AT the witness office. 
JOHN DOUGALL & SON, MONTREAL. 

The "Canadian Club" Skate, 

THE CHEAPEST PATENT STEEL SKATE IN THE MARKET 
THIS YEAR. 

The " Eureka Club" Skate, 

THE SIMPLIEST, PRETTIEST AND BEST SKATE 
MANUFACTURED. 

For sale at all Hardware and Skate Stores. 

Printed price lists and descriptive circulars furnished by 

JAMES MACFARLANE, 

Sole Agent for the Dominion of Canada, 

P.O. Box 1242. 374 St. Paul St., Montreal. 



«^»«. 



HALIFAX, N. S. — QUEBEC. 



135 



VMF8P0 

PATENT HAY LOADER. 



(Received the high- 
; e . p-nd only award at 
■ -,\ the Centennial Exposi- 
tion, Philadelphia.] 



MANUFACTURED BY 

Stratton &, Cullum, Meadville, Pa. 

G-MO. Wo JOWM8 9 HALIFAX, W.8. 9 

G-eneral Agent for the Maritime Provinces. 





i mm 1 .«, 

Engineers and Founders, 

ST. PAUL STREET, QUEBEC. 

MANUFACTURERS OF 

Steam Engines, Steam Pumps, 

and a variety of other pumps, 
Propeller Engines for Yachts and Tow Boats. 

Iron Railings, Hoisting Machines for Stores, Jack Screws, Bark Mills, 

and all kinds of Machinery for Mines, Saw Mills, Flour Mills, 

and Agricultural Implements. 

REPAIRS DONE AT SHORT NOTICE. i 



^.■\^^^ 



^s^^^,*V^«5rt^^s> a ?» <5 Nj^s^ • 



136 






Sk^ykfdy Yellow Oil 
REMOVES PAIN 



AS IF BY MAGIC. 

Cures many Internal 



Diseases 



The Most Popular and Effective Remedy known 

For Bheumatism, Neuralgia, Frost Bites, Chilblains, Corns, Warta* 

Croup, Sore Throat, Lame Backs, Spinal Affections, Contraction r 

of the Muscles, Asthma, Sprains, Bruises, Galls, &c. 

Used Xxiternally and Externally, 

WARRANTED TO CURE OR NO PAY. 

No danger from exposure to cold when using, but will cure Frost 
Bites in twenty-four hours. No house should be without a bottle of 
Hagyard's Yellow Oil in case of accident. There is no preparation 
offered to suffering humanity that has made so many permanent cures 
or relieved so much pain and misery. It is called by some the good 
Samaritan, by others the cure-all, and by the afflicted an Angel of 
Mercy. The party buying has no risk to run, as we guarantee every 
bottle to give satisfaction, or refund the money. 



It will relieve Asthma in ten minutes ; close, 10 drops on sugar, and rub the throat 
and chest well with the oil. 

It will relieve Croup in twenty minutes ; to he u«ed same as for Asthma, only in 
larger doses. 

It will relieve Kidney Complaint ; to he taken as for Asthma, and applied freely in 
the region of the disease. 

It will relieve deafness ; rub the oil around the ear, and damp a piece of cotton 
wool and put it in the ear, two or three times a clay. 

It will reduce Swellings op the Tonsils, Caulice on Caked Breasts, Stiff 
Joints, &o. 

It will cure Chilblains, Sprains, Itch, Pains in the Breast, Back or Sides ; to 
be applied three or four times a day. 

It will cure Corns, Bunions, &c ; rub night and morning, and keep them well pared. 

It will relieve Pain or Lameness, from auy cause, in man or beast 

It will cure Scratches, Mange, Sore Shoulders, Galls, Contracted Muscles, 
Cracked Hkels, &.c, &.c. 

It is cheap, because a 25-cent bottle will cure more than two dollars' worth of 
any other kind of medicine. 

It is one of the best healing Liniments in the world for Cuts or Flesh Wound?. 

It is a sure cure for Acute or Chronic Rheumatism. 

It is the cheapest Liniment made, because it relieves Pain instantly. Satisfaction 
guaranteed, or money refunded. 

It is put up in a large bottle, and every person gets good value for their money. 

It is well known that pain cannot exist where the Yellow Oil is applied. 

It is taken internally in cases of Croup, Sore Throat, Kidney Complaint and 
Cramps. 

It is equally good for Man and Beast. 

It is perfect in its combination ; age or climate will not impair its virtues. 

MILBURK, BENTLEY & PEARSON, 

Proprietors, Toronto. 



4 TORONTO, ONT. 



The Lois aid Canals Loan I Agency 

COMPANY, (Limited.) 




K _. . . . _ .. . 

| 

PRESIDENT. 

:ON. W. P. HOWL AND, C. B., Vice-President of the 
ntario Bank ; President of the Confederation Life 
Ipsurance Company. 

VICE-PRESIDENTS. 
*COL. GZOWSKI, C.E., Toronto. 

JJLTON, ESQ., Toronto, Director of Bank of Toronto. 
DIRECTORS. 
, HONBl). A. MACDONALD, Lieutenant-Governor of Ontario. 
f ! C. .IFCAMPBELL, ESQ., Banker, Toronto. 
, VONALD A. SMITH, Esq., Montreal, Director of Bank of 

Montreal. 
f H. S. HOWLAND, ESQ., Toronto, President Imperial Bank of 5 
\ Canada. 

I A. R. McMASTEB, ESQ., ( if A. K, McMaster & Bro., Toronto, 

# and London Ktip) 

I LARRATT W. SMITH, ESQ., York Township, President Build- 
4 INO and Loan Association. 

4 HON. T. N. GIBBS, Oshawa, President St. Lawrence Bank. 
I DONALD McINNES, ESQ., Hamilton, President Bank of 

5 Hamilton. 

I HON. JAS. R. BENSON, St. Catharines, Director Imperial 
% Bank of Canada. \ 

«S # T. D. McCONKEY, ESQ., Barrie, Sheriff County Simcoe. \ 

} D. MACFIE, ESQ,, London, President Dominion Savings Society. } 
f J. C. T. COCHRANE, ESQ., Brockville. } 

MANAGER. I 

J. GRANT MACDONALD, ESQ. 

SOLICITORS. { 

5 MESSRS. GRAHAME, HOWLAND & RYERSON, Toronto. I 

t } 

# HEAD OPPIOE : 44 KING STKEET WEST, T0K0NTO, Ont. ? 

{ ' ■ \ 

t $sr*Money advanced on the security of improved Farm and City Property, repayable | 

at such periods as may be agreed, % 

» SPECIAL LOANS on terms very favourable to borrowers are also made for a period i> 

> of years, but with the privPejre of direct repayments as often as the borrower may a 

\ find convenient, and without prior notice to the Company. The Directors believe \ 

% that, to farmers in particular, this clar s of loan will prove a boon, inasmuch as it \ 

€ enables them to repay principal whenever they choose, without binding them to $ 

6 fixed instalments, which from unforseen circumstances they may afterwards be cr 
$ unable to meet. ^ 

f^ Mortgages and Municipal Debentures Purchased. 

i> For particulars apply to j* 

«J. Gr. MACDONALD, 

\ Or to the Manager, Toronto. { 

I Company's Agents and Valuators throughout the Province of Ontario. I 



#g££m 




Photo grapKers 

-> TO THE <- 

« 

17 Bleury Street. 

MONTREAL. 




jf.&A